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Peace from Harmony
Spherons: Global Peace Genetics. International Spheral Statistics. GlobStatSpheres


Spherons
: Global Peace Genetics of the XXI century.

International Spheral Statistics:

GlobStatSpheres (GSS).

For "The Great Peace Charter XXI" Victory:

http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=834

 

Digital technology of the XXI century:
Spheral Information-Statistical Technology (SIST)
On the GSS foundation.

 

The XXI century Axiom:
Without GSS and SIST, the world's digital harmonious economy

and global peace in it are impossible.

 

The XXI century Trend:
Spheral science and statistics - digital technology - digital economy - global peace
spherons planetary harmonious noospheric civilization.

 

The XXI century ABC/Paradigm of Tetranet Thinking:
Sociocybernetic harmonious holistic thinking by spheres and spherons

structural harmony of social production o­n all levels

from family and country to humanity as a whole.
About similar level of thinking for humankind dreamed 70 years ago Albert Einstein,
if "it wants to survive":

(http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=824)

 

 

Publication:

In English: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

In Russian: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=783

 

The GHA articles list o­n spherons statistics and its methodology.
Published below:



 

1.Leo Semashko and Olga Kashina (2018) Global Peace Genetics: Structural Harmony of Russias Spherons in their Statistics for 2010, 1996 1991.

2.Stephen Amoah and Ayo Ayoola-Amale (2018) Global Peace Science: Structural Harmony of Spherons and Statistics of Ghanas Spherons for 2010, 2000 and 1984.

3.Leo Semashko (2018) Ghana: A scientific breakthrough in the statistical research of Spherons.

4.Olga Kashina (2018) Statistics of the Spherons population in Russia for 2002 - in work

5.Spherons of Pakistan (2018) - in work

6.Spherons of India (2018) - in work

7.Olga Kashina and Leo Semashko (2014) Statistics of SPHERONS of Russia for 2010: Methodology, Sources and Number: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=593

8.Olga Kashina (2014) Statistics of SPHERONS of St. Petersburg in 2010: Number. http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=593

9.Svetlana Kuskovskaya, Habyarimana Heli, Maitreyee Roy, Maria Azcona, Leela Pradhan, Ammar Banni (2014) Statistical Study of SPHERONS of Educational Institutions in Russia, Rwanda, India, Argentina, Nepal and Algeria: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=593

10.Leo Semashko (2002) The number of spheral classes in Russia in 1991 and 1996 (In the book: Tetrasociology: Responses to Challenges, 2002, pp. 45-49 or 69-73):

http://peacefromharmony.org/docs/2-1_eng.pdf or:

http://www.peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=180

----------------

Methodology and Program of
Statistical Research of Spherons
:

http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=593

1.Leo Semashko and 18 GHA members from 10 countries (2014) Dynamics of SPHERONS of Russia, India, USA and Kazakhstan in 1950-2010 for decades. The Program of Comparative Sociological Statistical Research (SSSI): http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=593

2.Leo Semashko and 18 GHA members from 10 countries (2014) Program of Statistical Study of SPHERONS of Educational Institutions http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=593

3.Leo Semashko, Ivan Ivanov (2014) Monitoring: Dynamics of Peace and War Priorities in World Public Consciousness in 2014 in the Internet: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=593

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Global Peace Genetics:

Structural Harmony of Russias Spherons in their Statistics

For 2010, 1996 1991

By

Leo Semashko and Olga Kashina

 

Abstract:

 

John F. Kennedy at the UN Session 55 years ago formulated the absolute truth of modernity: "Humanity must end the war before the war puts an end to humanity."

Unfortunately, the following questions remain unanswered: "Who, How, at What level and When will put an end to war?" The first attempt to give a scientific answer to these questions is proposed in the sociocybernetic "Global Peace Science" created in the GHA by efforts of 174 its co-authors (including several Nobel Peace Laureates and the Indian President) from 34 countries during 11 years of persistent teamwork.

The formula of this science answer is simple: "The conscious peace from spherons structural harmony excludes war." It means that the end of war and militarism can be put o­nly at the genetic level of the structural harmony of spherons global peace. Spherons are the population deepest stochastic structural classes / communities, employed in the four spheres of social production as the eternal and continuous social "autopoiesis" (self-production, H. Maturana) of humankind.

         The discovery of spherons has been proved in the GHA and now it is constantly proved by statistical researches in different countries, the number of which is growing. In our paper, the results of a statistical research of Russian spherons dynamics for 2010, 1996 and 1991 based o­n population censuses and other statistics are presented. The evidences from other countries are presented in similar researches from Ghana, India, Nigeria and Pakistan.

Keywords: spherons, global peace, social harmony, global peace science, spherons theory, national statistics of spherons, global peace genetics

 

Contents

 

1.Tasks of Research

2.Definition of the SPHERONS and their Sociocybernetic Genome (SOCIONOME)

3.Spheral Indices of the SPHERONS

4.Sources of Statistics o­n Employment and Unemployment of the Population in Russia

5.Classification by Branches of Economic Activity and Categories of Personnel

6.Technique of Definition of Number of Russia SPHERONS Based o­n Statistics

7.Mid-year Population of the Russian Federation for 2010

8.Definition of Number of Non-working Population (P1n) in Russia for 2010

9.Number of SPHERONS in Russia for 2010

10.Number of SPHERONS in Russia for 1991 and 1996

11.Conclusion: Problems and Significance of the Study

12.References

 

1. Tasks of Research


          The purpose of our statistical research is to define the numerical distribution of the population in Russia o­n the spheral classes, SPHERONS, for 2010, 1996 and 1991. To achieve this purpose in our work we solved the following tasks:

Formed the definition of SPHERONS (spheral classes of the population);

Formed the SPHERONS classification and their spheral indices;

Created the technique of determining the number of SPHERONS in Russia based o­n statistics of the population of Russia;

Examined the sources of statistics o­n employment and unemployment of the population of Russia;

Reviewed classifications by the branches of economic activity and categories of personnel used in Russia currently;

Collected data characterizing employment by the branches of economic activity, categories of personnel and non-working population;

Conducted grouping of the Russian population by SPHERONS for 2010, 1996 and 1991, which are expressed in their final tables of number.

          The study signification is defined by the fact that people/population who constitute SPHERONS are the main productive force of society and are a priority social resource that produces all other resources of society, including the population itself. Therefore, the employment statistics of Spherons is especially important for the conscious regulation of their genetic structural harmony, which excludes imbalances, disharmonies, crises and armed conflicts, hence ensuring sustainable peace and prosperity at the national and global levels.

 

2. Definition of the SPHERONS and their Sociocybernetic Genome (SOCIONOME)


          SPHERONS or spheral classes of the population are the extremely large groups of people covering them in a whole and employed in four spheres of social production of PIOT resources (People, Information, Organization, Things). They are differ o­n the main (on time) employment in o­ne of the four spheres [5, 70].
The Spherons most complete and detailed theoretical analysis is presented in the GHA fundamental book: "Global Peace Science", in Chapter 1 [6a, 21-51].

          Four spheres of production are:

1.Social sphere, or Sociosphere (S), the subject and product of which are people (P);

2.Information sphere, or Infosphere (I), the subject and product of which is information (I);

3.Organizational sphere or Orgsphere (O), the subject and product of which are organization, management, politics, law, finance, defense, etc. (O);

4.Technical (economic/environmental) sphere, or Technoecosphere (T), the subject and product of which are things, including all material goods and services (T).

Together, they are called SIOT-spheres.

           Four SPHERONS, spheral classes, employed in these spheres SIOT are:

1.SOCIOCLASS, people employed in Sociosphere, subject and product of this class are P;

2.INFOCLASS, people employed in Infosphere, subject and product of this class is I;

3.ORGCLASS, people employed in Orgsphere, subject and product of this class is O;

  1. TECHNOCLASS, people employed in Technoecosphere, subject and product of this class are T. See also [6, 3343]. Together, they are called SIOT-classes/Spherons.

           SOCIONOME. Four social spheral resources of PIOT, produced by the corresponding four Spherons in the corresponding four spheres of production, uniting the corresponding four processes: production, distribution, exchange and consumption constitute a social and, more precisely, a sociocybernetic genome, succinctly: SOCIONOME. It is a general and constant for all societies and at all levels sociocybernetic because it represents an integral nonlinear system of direct and inverse, regulating, stochastic cybernetic interactions/feedbacks within the framework of a holistic self-organizing structural harmony of spheres and spherons of social production of any form and any level. The nonlinear, stochastic and thermodynamic nature of spherons in the global peace genetics is disclosed here [6g].

            Its driving energy, productive force, motor, heart and blood are spherons that ensure the preservation of its genetic structural harmony and the development of its endless forms in social evolution. It is the genome of sustainable development and long life, social "autopoiesis" according to H. Maturana, of human society as a species of living nature. It excludes wars and any self-destruction by definition, which can o­nly be partial and temporary genetic pathologies of some local societies that either die naturally, or are cured from them in the same natural way.  Therefore, SOCIONOME is the genome of global peace and its genetic code, which remains constant in all the diversity of its endless sociocultural forms in the historical evolution of the human species. Only peace possesses the genome and genetics, the war is deprived of it and represents o­nly its partial and temporary pathology as a certain crash or breakage in its structural cybernetic harmony of spheres and spherons of social production.

             The discovery and development of the sociocybernetic theory of spherons and their genome continues for more than 40 years. This occurred in the mainstream of tetrasociology as third-order sociocybernetics (sociocybernetics of spheres and spherons of social production) and is represented in a variety of scientific works, of course, in the most complete and perfect form in recent books [6; 6a]. The shortest last description of the sociocybernetic genome is here: [6b].

           The theory of spherons and their genome constitutes the genetics of global peace, which becomes accessible to conscious regulation o­nly if there is appropriate scientific knowledge, its digital technologies and the corresponding sociogenic engineering of controlling and repairing certain parts of the socionome in its particular militaristic pathologies. Only genetically peacebuilding spherons, which scientifically aware of their own peace genetics, are capable to put an end to wars and militarism. o­nly they are able to do this nonviolently, at an adequate genetic level, scientifically managing their structural harmony, in order to prevent and eliminate any causes of wars. Therefore, to end the war, humanity will be able only to master the global peace genetics in the structural harmony of its spherons.

           Schematically, the sociocybernetic genome of the structural harmony of spherons global peace is represented as follows.

 

Scheme. Sociocybernetic GENOME of Spheres and Spherons Structural Harmony 

More details o­n SOCIONOME see [The ABC of Harmony for World Peace, 38-43] and

Video: http://youtu.be/hbxY5lREOeA

 

          It is obvious that the key role in the socionome among its 16 fundamental elements belongs to the Spherons who constantly reproduce it as bees in the swarm processes, therefore their statistical research at all levels, especially at the national level, is crucial for establishing peace in each country, and hence at the global level. o­nly to this research is devoted our work.

 

3. Spheral Indices of the SPHERONS


             SPHERONS, as a whole, and the individuals who make them differ by main (on time) employment in o­ne of the four spheres of society. (Employment of SPHERONS was discussed in more detail in the first chapter, paragraph 1.6. [6a]). Employment defines each persons universal life characteristics from birth to death. All other qualities of people, o­n which they differ, such as labor, property, power, education, and the like, are its partial manifestations and/or products. All the time within peoples lives is devoted to production of various social resources, including and above all, the continuation of life for themselves. Within multidimensional topology of vital employment of people are
distinguishedits two principal clusters:

            1. Self-production or autopoiesis is employment of each person by own himself (I) from birth to death in processes such as eating, sleeping, sex, hygiene, learning, communication, recreation, healing, etc. The term self-production (autopoiesis) was first introduced by Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela (1973) for theoretical biology to describe the self-reproduction of living cells [6e]. In 1990, this term was reinterpreted in sociology by Niklas Luhmann to describe characteristics of human communication as a key element of social system [6f]. Autopoiesis belongs to Sociosphere because it includes all kinds of human activity except economic/labor/working activity, which stands out in a separate cluster of employment.

            2. Labor/work or economic employment of people by other resources except own I. As a rule, this is formally established within norms of labor activity of society. The labor activity is a part of self-production known as seniority (work experience) or experience of labor activity. It is part of each persons life.

          These two clusters of employment divide the entire population into two parts:

1.Nonworking (economically inactive) population employed in Sociosphere by self-production.

2.Working or economically active population employed in all spheres.

              The task of this research is to determine the number of each SPHERON of Russia in the specified years and compare them among themselves in order to understand their dynamics and trends over time. For this purpose, the following spherons spheral indices are introduced.

The spheral indices, which are used to express Spherons, are defined as follows:


Table 1. Spherons spheral indices

P

Population/people in general for any level and any community from family, school and town up to country and the world.

P1

Socioclass, Spheron-1, who are employed in the branches of sociosphere (first sphere);

P1n

Non-working population, who are employed in self-production (autopoiesis, Maturana [10])of sociosphere and forming the Spheron-1first part;

P1w

Working population in the branches of Sociosphere and who constitute the Spheron-1 second part. Therefore, P1 = P1n + P1w;

P2

Infoclass, Spheron-2, who are employed in branches of Infosphere (second sphere);

P3

Orgclass, Spheron-3, who are employed in branches of Orgsphere (third sphere);

P4

Technoclass, Spheron-4, who are employed in branches of Technosphere (economic, fourth sphere).

 

          Each spheral class is a separate SPHERON covering part of the population employed in o­ne of the four spheres of social production. In sum, the number of people of the four SPHERONS is the total population. This is expressed by the formula: P = P1 (P1n + P1w) + P2 + P3 + P4 or

Population/People=Spheron-1 (nonworking + working in this sphere) + Spheron-2 + Spheron-3 + Spheron-4. This is the fundamental formula of the population/people of any community from the family, town, and country to humanity as a whole in the Spherons spheral indices.

The principal advantage and excellence of the spheral indicators is that they ensure the global digitalization of all national statistical indices, constitute their common denominator, logically organize/systematize/integrate them and open the way for the digital economy, for digital global peace through digital/conscious prevention of all wars and nonviolent resolution of all conflicts. The spheral indices aggregate and disaggregate the indices of traditional statistics o­n special digital technology that goes beyond the boundaries of our study. We do not touch upon these technical questions here, because they have been studied in detail in previous works [5; 6; 6a-d].

Spheral indices together with their digital statistical technologies of composition, decomposition, calculation, modeling and forecasting constitute an innovative digital global statistics (GLOBSTAT), suitable for all countries, industries, corporations, cities and other units of the world social production as a necessary tool for its digital economy and global peace.

 

4. Sources of Statistics o­n Employment and Unemployment of the Population in Russia


            Because the classification of population according to SPHERONS is an unknown statistic, the number can be determined indirectly by available statistics.

            In this study, we used three main sources of statistics o­n Russian employment and unemployment:

Data of Russia Population Census 2010 round (RPC-2010), published in 11 volumes [7; 8; 9; 10; 11];

The Distribution of Employees of Enterprises and Organizations o­n Economic Activity Kinds o­n average for 2010. [2];

Sample Data o­n the Number of Organizations Staff by the Activities Kinds and Staff Categories [2].

            In 2010, the census enumerated the resident population of Russia. The census was carried out at each persons place of permanent (usual) residence, which might or might not coincide with the address where the person is registered. In each dwelling existed the people who (usually) live there all the time, including those who at the moment of census were temporarily absent for a period of up to o­ne year.

            The resident population is categorized by households:

private households;

collective households;

homeless households.

           The population living in private households, distributed by gender and age, were allocated as:

Children and adolescents aged 014 years;

The population aged 1572 years; it is among the employed population in this age group that random observations about employment and professional composition of employees in the period after the census were conducted;

Persons aged 73 years and older.

            This source allows defining the number of people in the population who are employed, self-production or non-working (inactive), which is part of the Socioclass, expressed by spheral index P1n.

 

5. Classification by Branches of Economic Activity and Categories of Personnel


             In this study were used three statistical classifications, according to:

1.Economic activity;

2.Industries/branches/types/kinds of economic activity (activities);

3.Personnel/staff categories.

These classifications allow us to define the number of SPHERONS employed in four spheres, according to the number of employees in the industries of each sphere.

Classification of economic activity was used from the RPC-2010 materials.

            The economically active population includes persons aged 1572 years who, for the week before the census (from 7 to 13 October 2010), were employed in economic activity or looking for work and were ready to start. This economically active population was divided into employment in the economy and the unemployed. (Unemployed busy self-production are included in P1n of Socioclass/Spheron-1).

            The employed in economy are those who, for the week before the census (from 7 to 13 October 2010), were working independently of the timing of direct payment or income for their work activity (at least o­ne hour per week) or receiving income regardless of whether it was permanent, temporary, seasonal, casual or other work (including self-employment and the provision of various services to individuals, paid social work, work without pay for a family business, work o­n a peasant/farm and various kinds of underworking both periodic and o­ne-off).

            The employed were considered also the persons who performed household work o­n the production of goods or services, including agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing and its processing, if the products are intended for market.

              The persons who owned their a company or business and working o­n it but in the survey week were missing work for any reason were considered employed if in the period of their absence the business continued to operate.

             The employed in economy were considered also the temporarily absent from work due to illness or injury, care, annual leave or unpaid leave of their own accord, weekend time off, reimbursement of overtime or work o­n holidays (weekend) days of work o­n a special schedule, spent in reserve, statutory maternity leave, maternity leave and child care, education or training outside their workplace, educational leave, leave without pay or leave with pay by the administration.

            The students and pensioners who had any work during the period are also among the employed in the economy.

Data o­n the average annual number of employed in the economy after the census period formed by the main job of the civilian population o­nce a year in the preparation of the balance of labor resources o­n the basis of organizations information, materials of sample survey o­n employed population and the data of executive bodies. The annual average number of employees includes working foreign nationals who are permanent residents and those temporarily residing in the territory of Russian Federation.

            During the census were not considered employed in economy those who from 7 to 13 October 2010 o­nly studied in an educational vocational institution full-time; produced products in private farms for their own consumption; provided services in their own household cleaning house, cooking, and similar services; provided services free of charge for any individuals or charities, parent councils, committees, veterans hospitals or nursing homes, etc.; owned shares of any company or society without direct participation in the economic activity of the organization; begging (even if it generated revenues) or collection of bottles, etc.

             The unemployed are those who in the survey week did not have a job (gainful employment) and:

- Were seeking work and were available for work during the survey week. Finding a job is considered a public or commercial employment service; so is use of or placing ads in the media, direct appeal to the administration of a company or potential employer, and use of personal connections to promote o­neself, and the organization of o­nes own business;

- Found a job and proceeded to it two weeks after the survey week;

- Found a job and expected a response from the administration or the employer with a response waiting period not to exceed o­ne month.

For those who organize their own business, the period of the job search was considered an activity to registration of business. Activity after the registration was deemed to be busyness o­n own enterprise.

The pupils, students and pensioners were counted as unemployed if they, in the survey week, were seeking work and were ready to start.

             Economically inactive population are people aged 1572 years who were not employed in the economy or unemployed during the survey week [3].

             Classification of economic activity was used to highlight the following categories of the population aged 1572 years:

Economically active population (employed and unemployed);

Economically inactive population (scholarship holders, pensioners, persons receiving benefits except unemployment benefits, engaged in private farming, etc.);

Persons who have not indicated economic activity.

              Grouping of economic units (enterprises) by the kinds of economic activity (KEA) was done using the Russian Classification of Economic Activities (RCEA), adopted and entered into force o­n January 1, 2008. RCEA is based o­n harmonization with the official version in Russian of Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE Rev. 1) by maintaining the names of respective positions without changing the scope of the concepts. These are the following types of activities [12]:


Table 2
. Economic Activities

Section

Economic Activities

AGRICULTURE, HUNTING AND FORESTRY

B

FISHING

MINING AND QUARRYING

D

MANUFACTURING

E

ELECTRICITY, GAS AND WATER SUPPLY

F

CONSTRUCTION

G

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE; REPAIR OF MOTOR VEHICLES, MOTORCYCLES AND PERSONAL AND HOUSEHOLD GOODS

H

HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS

I

TRANSPORT, STORAGE AND COMMUNICATION

J

FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION

K

REAL ESTATE, RENTING AND BUSINESS ACTIVITIES

L

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND DEFENCE; COMPULSORY SOCIAL SECURITY

M

EDUCATION

N

HEALTH AND SOCIAL WORK

O

OTHER COMMUNITY, SOCIAL AND PERSONAL SERVICE ACTIVITIES

P

ACTIVITIES OF HOUSEHOLDS

Q

EXTRA-TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATIONS AND BODIES


            During the sample survey of payroll, the number of organizations by professional groups and economic activities conducted o­n October 31, 2012 is identified by the following categories of staff:

Heads of organizations and their structural units (services);

Specialists of higher qualification;

Specialists of mid-level qualifications;

Employees engaged in the preparation of information, documentation, accounting and service;

Service workers, housing and communal services, trade and related activities;

Skilled workers in agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishery activities;

Skilled factory workers, construction, transport, communication, geology and exploration of mineral resources;

Operators, machinists of systems and machinery;

Unskilled workers.

            The above categories of staff were grouped into four groups to highlight four spheral classes or SPHERONS:

  1. The heads of organizations and their structural units (services)  P3, Orgclass;
  2. Specialists of higher and mid-level qualifications engaged learning and health care personnel  P1w, Socioclass;
  3. Specialists and employees involved in preparation of information, documentation and accounting  P2, Infoclass;
  4. Other categories of staff, except heads and employees involved in the preparation of information, documentation, accounting and service  P4, Technoclass.

          In this case, the category of employees engaged in the preparation of information, documentation, accounting and service groups include the following personnel:

Stenographers and typists;

Operators using special equipment for the preparation and transmission of information (printer, telex, facsimile, cryptographic equipment and e-mail);

Operators of computers (PCs), employed various information input;

Operators of computers (counting machines, calculators, texture machine);

Secretaries and clerks;

Employees engaged in accounting transactions and accounting;

Employees engaged in the processing of statistical and financial information;

Employees engaged in the receipt and delivery of goods;

Employees engaged in dispatching production.

Employees engaged in accounting and o­n duty transport;

Employees engaged in card files and libraries;

Coders, proofreaders and related occupations;

Other employees engaged in the preparation of information, documentation and accounting;

Cashiers, including tickets cashiers;

Cashiers of banks and related occupations;

Employees to obtain payments o­n accounts, overdue and other cash amounts;

Employees engaged in receiving and informing visitors (receptionists, attendants of pass office, o­n the issuance of certificates and others);

             This group includes the specialists of scientific and design organizations, cultural institutions, art, media, advertising and the like.

Due to the fact that the selected above categories are involved in the preparation of information, documentation, accounting and service, employees who do not have special vocational training are necessary to correct this size. Such adjustments are associated with the addition to the number of employees a number of specialists with secondary and higher vocational education who are employed with processing and analysis of information. Unfortunately, data o­n the number of specialists with secondary and higher education employed processing and analysis of information is missing in the statistics of Russian Federation.

 

6. Technique of Definition of Number of Russia SPHERONS Based o­n Statistics


             The technique of determining the number of SPHERONS of employed (working, economically active) persons in Russia is a superposition and cumulative use of two traditional statistical classifications (KEA and categories of staff) o­n the structure of SPHERONS. Or, in other words, the statistical information of employment in KEA and staff categories are differentiated and grouped by four SPHERONS structure (except for the non-working population engaged in self-production). This technique can be expressed by the following table.


Table 3
. KEA by Personnel Categories

Economic Activities (KEA)

Personnel Categories

P1w

P2

P3

P4

Economic Activities, Table 2.

 

 

 

 

Application of this technique to the statistics of employed (economically active) persons of Russia with taking into account the non-working (economically inactive) population will allow us to define the size of SPHERONS of Russia in full in 2010 according to the census.

 

7. Mid-year Population of the Russian Federation for 2010

Mid-year population of the Russian Federation for 2010 amounted to 142.938 million. This is calculated by the average chronological quarters of 2010. By the average annual number of indicators, we calculate the average per capita (income, housing, consumption, etc.). Therefore, this study used the average annual population and average number of employed as the most robust data for the year [1; 4].

 

8. Definition of Number of Non-working Population (P1n) in Russia for 2010

The 2010 population census of the age and gender composition of the population living in private households identified the following age groups and calculated the structure of the non-working population employed in self-production [3; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11]:


Table 4
. Employed self-production (non-working, economic inactive), millions

P1n

P1n = Employed self-production, sum of non-working, economic inactive:

73,629

100%

 

Age group 014 years:

21,398

29,1

 

Age group 1572 years, inactive:

33,708

45,8

 

Age group 1572 years, unemployed:

6,647

9,0

 

Age group 1572 years, the homeless:

0,064

0,1

 

Age group 73 and older, inactive:

9,979

13,6

 

Others:

1,833

2,5


             Calculated according to the RPC  2010, Volume 7, Table 1, Population of private households by age groups, gender and economic activity [11]:
http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm

 

9. Number of SPHERONS in Russia for 2010

 

Table 5. Number of SPHERONS of Population in RUSSIA for 2010, in million people

Spheral Indices

The Employed in Branches of Four Spheres

2010

%

P

All Population of Russia: P = P1+P2+P3+P4

142,938

100

P1

SOCIOCLASS, Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + P1n

84,988

59,4

P1w

P1w = sum of employed (working) in the branches of Sociosphere:

11,359

7,9

 

M EDUCATION

5,109

3,6

 

N HEALTH AND SOCIAL WORK

4,203

2,9

 

O OTHER COMMUNITY, SOCIAL AND PERSONAL SERVICE ACTIVITIES

2,046

1,4

P1n

P1n = Employed of self-production, sum of non-working, economic inactive:

73,629

51,5

 

Age group 014 years:

21,398

15,0

 

Age group 1572 years, inactive:

33,708

23,6

 

Age group 1572 years, unemployed:

6,647

4,6

 

Age group 1572 years, the homeless:

0,064

0,0

 

Age group 73 and older, inactive:

9,979

7,0

 

Others:

1,833

1,3

P2

INFOCLASS, Spheron-2:

= sum of employed in the branches of Infosphere:

3,997

2,8

 

COMMUNICATION

0,721

0,5

 

Science and scientific services

0,755

0,5

 

Others

2,521

1,8

P3

ORGCLASS, Spheron-3:

= sum of employed in the branches of Orgsphere:

10,775

7,5

 

L PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND DEFENCE; COMPULSORY SOCIAL SECURITY

1,122

0,8

 

J FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION

3,905

2,7

 

Others:

5,748

4,0

P4

TECHNOCLASS, Spheron-4:

= sum of employed* in the branches of Technosphere**:

40,930

28,6

 

AGRICULTURE, HUNTING AND FORESTRY

6,063

4,2

 

B FISHING

0,130

0,1

 

MINING AND QUARRYING

0,930

0,7

 

D MANUFACTURING

8,926

6,2

 

E ELECTRICITY, GAS AND WATER SUPPLY

1,656

1,2

 

F CONSTRUCTION

4,751

3,3

 

G WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE; REPAIR OF MOTOR VEHICLES, MOTORCYCLES AND PERSONAL AND HOUSEHOLD GOODS

9,882

6,9

 

H HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS

1,011

0,7

 

I TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

3,886

2,7

 

K REAL ESTATE, RENTING AND BUSINESS ACTIVITIES

3,695

2,6

 

Statistical error

2,248

1,6


         Total in Table 5 are 32 indices + statistical error.

*The number of employed by KEA is given except for the organizations heads (P3) and employees working with information (P2).

**The number of employed by KEA in P and Q branches was not published; it is very small, so it is not considered.

          The calculations were performed o­n the average number of employees for 2010.

Note. o­n the basis of available publications and statistical data, we could not allocate the employed in culture (libraries, archives, museums, radio and television, etc.) of economic activity OTHER COMMUNITY, SOCIAL AND PERSONAL SERVICE ACTIVITIES to exclude this population from Sociosphere and to include in Infosphere.

 

10. Number of SPHERONS in Russia for 1991 and 1996


           For comparison, we publish a similar table of SPHERONS of Russian population for 1991 and 1996, made in other state statistical classification of economic activities and published in 2002 [5, 7172].

 

Table 6. Number of SPHERONS in Russia for 1991 and 1996 in million people

Spheral Indices

The Employed in Branches of Four Spheres

1991

1996

1996/%

P

All Population of Russia: P = P1+P2+P3+P4

148,5

148

100

P1

SOCIOCLASS:P1 = P1w + P1n

81,6

89,1

60,2

P1w

P1w = sum of employed (working) in the branches of Sociosphere:

6,8

7,1

4,8

 

Education

2,5

2,5

1,7

 

Health, social welfare, sports

4,3

4,6

3,1

 

Priests

-

-

-

P1n

P1n = Employed of self-production, sum of non-working, economic inactive:

74,8

82,0

55,4

 

Pensioners, invalids

33,8

37,1

25,1

 

Pupils, students (full time)

25,5

26,6

18,0

 

Preschoolers and housewives

11,8

11,5

7,8

 

Unemployed

3,6

6,8

4,6

P2

INFOCLASS = sum of employed in the branches of Infosphere:

8,5

7,4

5,0

 

Science and scientific service

0,9

0,9

0,6

 

Communication

2,8

1,6

1,1

 

Culture and art

4,8

4,9

3,3

P3

ORGCLASS = sum of employed in the branches of Orgsphere:

4,0

4,6

3,1

 

Number of the management staff

1,7

1,9

1,3

 

Finance, credit, insurance

0,4

0,9

0,6

 

Other branches (defense, policy, security, custom-house etc.)

1,9

1,8

1,2

P4

TECHNOCLASS = sum of employed in the branches of Technosphere:

54,4

46,9

31,7

 

Industry

22,4

16,3

11,0

 

Agriculture and wood industry

9,8

9,8

6,6

 

Construction

8,5

6,3

4,3

 

Transport

4,9

4,4

3,0

 

Trade and public nutrition

5,6

6,8

4,6

 

Housing and communal services

3,2

3,3

2,2

 

11. Conclusion: Problems and Significance of the Study


            The problems of this statistical study are caused by its novelty (nobody has conducted similar studies) and its colossal labor input. These problems become apparent when expanding the content of research, for example, as proposed in its Program [6a], including an analysis of the economic situation of SPHERONS, their income, their participation in government, their education and, similarly, their qualities in dynamics for years, in different countries and at different levels from municipal to global, starting from schools, hospitals, small businesses and settlements to large corporations, cities and countries.

           The significance of this study is difficult to overestimate.

            First, the statistical analysis of the number of Russian SPHERONS in 2010 opens the fundamental new possibility of creating an evolution of global (spheral) statistics as a common denominator for the bad comparable national statistics of traditional branch nature, which are now developing in this direction poorly for a very long time. The branches and activities within spheres appear and disappear, change names, unite with others and are divided into several new branches and activities, which are different in different countries and in different within o­ne country. The currently used inferior ways are constantly changeable, while spheres and their classes  SPHERONS  are constant and eternal for any country and for all its historical periods. This will ensure stability and uniformity of the global/spheral statistics for a single global world in the future.

            Second, if this study were possible for o­ne country at different times with different statistical classifiers, it is equally possible for any other country despite the differences in statistical classifications and systems of indices in each country. But it is extremely time-consuming, innovative work that requires efforts of relevant scientific institutions. Now statistical studies of spherons are conducted in other countries, for example, in Ghana, India and Pakistan.

             Third, it opens the possibility of quantifying the causes and sources of all wars and armed conflicts, paving the way for their intelligent, non-violent and peaceful solution. Global/spheral statistics is an essential element of global peace science (GPS), without which it cannot exist and the necessary technological tool for its implementation in the process of conscious building global peace. In place of baseless and eternal accusations by warring parties, the SPHERONS method is able to put accurate, statistical assessment of the scale of mutual contradictions and disharmony and indicate ways to eliminate or minimize them for beneficial mutual interests and nonviolent way.

            Fourth, development of other social sciences depends from the global/spheral statistics of SPHERONS; for example, forecasting, without which the future loses certainty and humanity is deprived of scientific wisdom. Academicians Viktor Sadovnichiy and Daisaku Ikeda present this idea. In particular, they wrote: Today, the mathematical theory of forecasting (which is inseparable from statistics  L.S.) has neither enough depth in the theory of forecasting nor satisfactory breadth of coverage in the range of application areas that are particularly important for practice. These factors cannot but affect the credibility and long-term impact of both discussed and proposed forecasts[13]. Now Global Peace Science (GPS) from the spherons structural harmony crystallizes in its social genome a deep theory of forecasting.[6].   This science ensures the reliability, durability and worldwide breadth of forecasting, but require the development of new mathematics of harmony and global statistics suitable for the expression and calculation of spheral indices for the spherons structural harmony.

           They define scientific wisdom as diverse harmony in the words of Daisaku Ikeda. The future lost certainty in traditional social science of dying industrial civilization, which has no future. But the future finds certainty through the GPS definitions in the new social science based o­n GPS. This future is a harmonious civilization of SPHERONS, conscious/scientific global peace without wars, conservation of nature, gender, economic and political equality, justice and love.

            Fifth, this first statistical proof and the study of Russian spherons has great scientific, political, economic and peacemaking significance for the country. But it requires expansion both in time and in depth, in the subjects of the Russian Federation and in large cities, which will create spheral macro statistical map of its state and development with all its positive and negative trends, including trends in the growth of social tensions between the spherons in different regions and at different stages. This knowledge will allow the country's leadership to find harmonious ways to overcome these disharmonies and ensure a stable peace from the structural genetics of national spherons. But this requires a lot of innovative scientific and practical work in the future, which is just beginning and which will undoubtedly reach the level of conscious building global peace from its structural genetics.

 

References

1.Regions of Russia. Socio-economic Indicators 2013. Statistical Collection. M: 2013

2.Methodological Guidelines for Conducting Sample Surveys of Population o­n Employment (Labor Force Survey). M: 2010: http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/population/trud/Untitled452-10.pdf

3.Methodological Clarification to the National Population Census 2010. M: 2010

4.Statistical Yearbook of Russia 2013. M: 2014

  1. Semashko, Leo (2002) Tetrasociology: Responses to Challenges. St Petersburg: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=145

6.Semashko, Leo and GHA 75 coauthors (2012). The ABC of Harmony for World Peace, Harmonious Civilization and Tetranet Thinking. New Delhi, Doosra Mat Prakashan. http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=478

6a. Semashko Leo and 173 coauthors from 34 countries. Global Peace ScienceJoint publication of GHA and IASE University, India. World textbook. The first publication in English, Smaran Publication, New Delhi. 2016. 616 p. ISBN 978-81-929087-8-6: http://peacefromharmony.org/docs/global-peace-science-2016.pdf

6b. Semashko, Leo (2018) The ABC/Paradigm of Tetranet Thinking for "New Women" harmonious feminism: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=824

6c. Kashina, Olga, Semashko Leo (2014). Statistics of SPHERONS of Russia for 2010: Methodology, Sources and Number. (In the book: 6a) and here: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=593

6d. Kashina, Olga (2006) Demography and population statistics / Ed. I.I. Elisseeva.-M: Finance and Statistics, Ch. 13

6e. Maturana, Humberto & Varela, Francisco ([1st edition 1973] 1980). Autopoiesis and Cognition: the Realization of the Living.

6f. Paetau, Michael. Niklas Luhmann and Cybernetics. Journal of Sociocybernetics. Vol 11 No 1/2 (2013): https://papiro.unizar.es/ojs/index.php/rc51-jos/article/view/790

6g. Afanasyeva, Vera; Avery, John; Ecimovic, Timi and Semashko, Leo (2017) Thermodynamics and Negentropy of Spheral Classes Societal Harmony: Global Peace Thermodynamics: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=756

7.Russian Census of Population 2010 (RCP-2010):

8.RCP-2010: Volume 1 Number and Distribution of the Population

9.RCP-2010: Volume 2 Age and Sex Composition and Marital Status

10.RCP-2010: Volume 6 The Size and Composition of Households

11.RCP-2010: Volume 7 The economic Active and Inactive Population

12.The National Classifier of Economic Activities OK 029-2007 (NACE Rev. 1.1). M.: 2012

13.Sadovnichiy, Victor and Ikeda, Daisaku (2013). At the Turn of the Century. Dialogue o­n the Essentials  Moscow: Moscow University Press

 

Olga Kashina, Ph.D. (Statistics), Professor, State Educational University,

Graduated the Leningrad Finance and Economics Institute in 1976, specialty Statistics. In 1982 doctoral thesis of economic sciences o­n statistics. Teaching statistics in universities since 1977. Published more than 70 scientific works, including co-authorship of three textbooks for high schools o­n statistics. Expert of Rosstat in St. Petersburg and Leningrad region (Petrostat).

Address: St. Petersburg, Russia;

Webpage: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=757

E-mail: olgkash2007@rambler.ru

 

Leo M. Semashko, Ph.D. (Philosophy), Education: Moscow State University, Philosophical Faculty, History of Foreign Philosophy Chair; RANH Professor; Founding President, Global Harmony Association (GHA) since 2005; GHA Honorary President since 2016; State Councilor of St. Petersburg; Philosopher, Sociologist and Peacemaker from Harmony; Author of more than 600 scientific publications, including 18 books in 1-12 languages; Author of Tetrism/Harmonism as the unity of Tetraphilosophy and Tetrasociology as third order Sociocybernetics science of social harmony, global peace and harmonious civilization; Director: Tetrasociology Public Institute, Russia; Honorary Member of the RC51, Sociocybernetics, International Sociological Association; Director, GHA Web portal Peace from Harmony: http://peacefromharmony.org; Initiator, Manager, Coauthor and Editor in Chief of the book project Global Peace Science (GPS): http://peacefromharmony.org/docs/global-peace-science-2016.pdf.

Address: St-Petersburg, Russia; Phone: +7(812)-597-6571;

E-mail: leo.semashko@gmail.com

Personal page: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=253

28-07-18

 



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Global Peace Science: Structural Harmony of Spherons

and Statistics of Ghanas Spherons for 2010, 2000 and 1984

By

Stephen Amoah and Ayo Ayoola-Amale

 

Abstract

This study is the application ofthe Spherons (spheral macro classes) theory of tetrasociology to analyze the 2010, 2000 and 1984 Ghana population and housing census statistics of the country taking into consideration the population spheral classes to provide insights o­n macro employment in the country. Specifically, the study investigated the population macro structure in terms of its spheral classes using spheral indices to express the spherons.

The purpose of our statistical study was to define the macro distribution of Ghanas population based o­n its spheral classes and their dynamics in 2010, 2000 and 1984. The analysis showed a disharmonious distribution favoring the socioclass and technoclass within the overall spheral classes picture in comparison with the orgclass and infoclass. Of the two macro groups in the socioclass, the non-working population far outstripped the working population.

An in-depth study of the dynamics of the spheral classes of a country, allows revealing profound social contradictions that can lead to the armed conflicts. Conscious regulation therefore ensures their prevention and lead to peaceful life of the population. The questions of statistics of spherons, their dynamics and indices are new for the social sciences and at the same time very important for them, especially for the economy and for ensuring peace at all levels.

Keywords: Spherons, tetrasociology/sociocybernetics, spheral indices, autopoiesis, spheral classes

 

Contents

 

Introduction

The global search for development and peace among nations has led to the proposal of various strategies with the ultimate goal of achieving harmonious stability of humanity and every society. The Spherons discovery and the statistical study of them identified by the tetrasociology/sociocybernetic conception [11; 12; 12a; 14 etc.], which places the right emphasis o­n human security and peace, holistically, covers the entire society with all its resources: people, information, organisation and things including environment.

This understanding of human security and peace, as against the traditional concept of protection of national borders and investment in military readiness [13], is the emerging model for resolution of the conflicts that have evolved over the centuries. The line of reasoning of the Spherons theory is, if humanity align itself to the tetrasociology /sociocybernetic concept, humanity stands the chance to experience the peace from harmony that has eluded it earlier.

The Spherons theory promises to bring the ultimate goal of harmonious and peaceful development of humanity and every society as it focuses o­n people and provides the real macro picture of the distribution of people o­n the Spherons and social resources between them. This ensures the achievement of structural harmony in the effective decision making all partial conflicts. The study of the Spherons of Russia [12] has brought out issues for the right scientific understanding of global and national peace. In our study of Ghanas Spherons, we seek to apply similar approach to the dynamics of Ghanas population through its macro spheral classes and vis-à-vis the labour market.

 

Objective of study

To study the demographic structure of the population of Ghana in terms of its spherons or spheral classes and its dynamics in a first approximation in the three time points.

 

Data and Methodology

The main data sources for this study are the 1984, 2000 and 2010 Population Census of Ghana (PCG) [1] [2] [3] with emphasis o­n the 2010 census. The study involved desktop review and analysis of the census documents by applying the Spherons methodology and spheral indices to express the statistics.

 

Data Limitations

The period of conducting a census is of great importance in the census undertaking. The 2010 census was conducted in the months of September and October. All the other censuses in the post-independence era were carried out in the month of March. This is worthy of note because it might also affect the classifications of the economically active population as well as the type of activity in which they are engaged given seasonal differences in employment opportunities. The categories of occupation and industry in the 1960, 1970, 1984 and 2000 censuses were different from those in the 2010 census given recent revisions and the introduction of new categories. In the 2010 census for example, occupation categories such as elementary occupation and craft and related trade workers were introduced. Similarly, industry groups such as accommodation and food service activities and information and communication were introduced to reflect changes in the economy. For this reason, there are differences in the employment categories and industrial sectors between the 2010 census and the previous o­nes.

 

Definitions

           SPHERONS. Spherons or spheral classes of the population can be defined as the extremely large groups of people covering population in a whole and employed in four spheres or spheral categories/sectors of social production. These spherons produce in these spheres the appropriate extremely large groups/categories of social resources/products:People, Information, Organisation and Things (PIOT) and therefore they differ o­n the main (on time) employment in o­ne of the spheres with o­ne of these resources/products[11; 12; 12a].

           SPHERES OF PRODUCTION. The Spherons theory distinguishes four spheres of production, which are defined as:

1. Social sphere or Sociosphere (S): The subject and product of which are people (P);

2. Information sphere or Infosphere (I): The subject and product of which is information (I);

3. Organization sphere or Orgsphere (O): This sphere has organisation (O), management, politics, law, finance, defense etc. as its subject and product;

4. Technical (economic/environmental) sphere or Technoecosphere (T): The subject and product of this sphere are the things including all material goods and services (T).

           All four spheres together are referred as SIOT, in which are employed four Spherons SIOT-classes, who produce in them the PIOT spheral resources/products. The PIOT spheral resources/productsare expressed by the special spheral indices. The first from them are the spheral indices of the Spherons [11; 12; 12a]. The Spherons spheral indices are the main subject ofstatistical research here and in all similar studies.

             EMPLOYMENT TWO CLUSTERS. Employment/occupation, in its multidimensional topology has two principal clusters: (1) Self production or autopoiesis [9] and (2) Labor or economic employment of people by other resources except own I or Myself.

1. Self-production or autopoiesis is explained as employment of each person by himself from birth to death.in processes such as eating, sleeping, learning, communication, recreation etc. Autopoiesis belongs o­nly to Sociosphere because it includes all kinds of human activity except economic/labor activity. The term was introduced by Umberto Maturana and Francisco Varela (1973) [9] for theoretical biology to describe the self-reproduction of living cells. Niklas Luhmann in 1990 [8] reinterpreted the term in sociology to describe characteristics of human communication as the key element of social system.

2. Labor or economic employment of people by other resources except I. This is formally established within norms of labor activity of society. The labor activity is a part of self-production known as seniority (work experience) or experience of labor activity. It is part of each persons life.

The two clusters of employment divide the entire population into two parts:

(1)Nonworking (economically inactive) population employed in Sociosphere by self-production

(2)Working or economically active population employed in all spheres.

 

The Spheral indices of the Spherons


            The spheral indices, which are used to express the SPHERONS, are defined as follows:

 

Table 1. Spheral indices of Spherons

P

Population/people in general for any level and community from family, school and town up to country and the world.

P1

Socioclass, Spheron-1, who are employed in the branches of sociosphere (first sphere);

P1n

Non-working population, who are employed in self-production (autopoiesis, Maturana [10])of sociosphere and forming the Spheron-1first part;

P1w

Working population in the branches of Sociosphere and who constitute the Spheron-1 second part. Therefore, P1 = P1n + P1w;

P2

Infoclass, Spheron-2, who are employed in branches of Infosphere (second sphere);

P3

Orgclass, Spheron-3, who are employed in branches of Orgsphere (third sphere);

P4

Technoclass, Spheron-4, who are employed in branches of Technosphere (economic, fourth sphere).

 

Each spheral class is a separate SPHERON covering part of the population employed in o­ne of the four spheres of social production. In sum, the number of people of the four SPHERONS is the total population. This is expressed by the formula: P =P1 (P1n + P1w) + P2 + P3 + P4 or

Population/People= Spheron-1 (nonworking + working) + Spheron-2 + Spheron-3 + Spheron-4. This is the fundamental formula of the population/people of any community from the family, town, and country to humanity as a whole in the Spherons spheral indices.

The principal advantage and excellence of the spheral indicators is that they ensure the global digitalization of all national statistical indices, constitute their common denominator, logically organize/systematize/integrate them and open the way for the digital economy, for digital global peace through digital/conscious prevention of all wars and nonviolent resolution of all conflicts. The spheral indices aggregate the indices of traditional statistics o­n special technology that goes beyond the boundaries of our study. These questions are not discussed here, because they have been studied in detail in previous works [11; 12; 12a].

 

Employment and Unemployment Statistics, Ghana 2010 PHC

Ghanas population at 2010 was 24,658,823 with a total of 5,467,136 households of which more than half (55.8%) are in urban areas. The average household size was 4.4. The Census covered three different population groups: (1) household population; (2) non-household (Group Quarters/institutional) population; and (3) Out-door sleepers/floating population. Majority of household heads (76.6%) were economically active (GSS, 2012) [3; 4; 5].

Ghanas population has a youthful structure with a broad base consisting of large numbers of children and a conical top of a small number of elderly persons. The 2010 Census indicated the population under 15 years constituted 38.5%. Population 15-24 years constituted 20.0%, population 25-59, constituted 35% and population 60+ years, 6.7 percent.

The three most common occupations that household heads engaged in were: agriculture, forestry and fishery; services and sales; and craft and related trades. Agriculture is more popular in rural localities for both male and the female household heads. The service and sales sector is more popular among urban household heads. Most household heads are self-employed in the private informal sector of the economy, with a minority in the private formal and public sectors as employees.

The statistics o­n employment and unemployment o­n Ghanas population was mainly obtained from the 2010 population and housing census conducted by the country. Definition of employment and unemployment was based o­n ILO regulations o­n labor statistics. The age for employment used in the Census was 15-65 years.

 

The 2010 PHC defined employed population as comprising of the following:

The population that worked

The population that did not work but had job to go back.

The population that did voluntary work without pay.

The unemployed population was defined as comprising of:

The population that worked before seeking work and available for work.

The population seeking work for the first time and available for work [3; 4; 5].

 

Table 2. Employed and unemployed population by sex, 2010 PHC

Status

Population

Male

Female

Employment

10,939,923

5,372,379

5,567,544

Unemployment*

579,743

256,825

323,918

*The unemployed population was defined as persons 15+ years who had no fixed job, not seeking for job and not available for work.

 

Classification by branches of economic activity and categories of personnel.

          
             Definitions and Concepts. Economic Activity

The question o­n economic activity was asked of all persons five years and above who engaged in any activity for pay (cash or kind) or profit or family gain for at least o­ne hour during the seven days preceding census night.

 

Economically active population

           The economically active population was defined as persons who:

Worked for pay or profit or family gain for at least o­ne hour within the seven days preceding census night. This category of persons included those who were in paid employment or self-employment or contributing family workers;

Did not work, but had job to return to;

Were unemployed and actively looking for work.

 

Economically not active population

          The economically not active persons were those who did not work and were not seeking for work. The category included homemakers, full time students, retired persons, the disabled and persons who were unable to work because of their age or ill-health.

 

Labour force

         The labour force comprised employed persons who had jobs or businesses and the unemployed. The term economically active population by the census definition was the same as the labour force. Therefore, these terms are used interchangeably in the chapter as appropriate.

 

Workforce (the employed)

          Workforce represents the total number of workers actively employed, or available for work. It consisted of all persons aged 15 years and above, who during the reference period, were in the following categories:

At work, that is, persons who during the reference period performed some work for wage or salary either in cash or in kind or worked without pay.

Had a job to go back to, but did not work within the reference period.

 

The Unemployed

          This comprises all persons aged 15 years and above, who during the reference period were:

Without work and had no fixed jobs;

Currently available for work;

Seeking for work by taking specific steps to look for work (e.g. writing applications, visiting job sites, visiting employment agencies and seeking help from friends and relatives in the search for jobs

 

Classification of economic activities

        
           The classification of economic activities in the 2010 PHC was done using the International standard classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) revision 4 [8]. The ISIC rev 4 is the international reference classification of productive activities. Its main purpose is to provide a set of activity categories that can be utilized for the collection and reporting of statistics according to such activities.


Table 3: Economic Activities

SECTION

DESCRIPTION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

 

A

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

B

Mining and quarrying

C

Manufacturing

D

Electricity, gas, stream and air conditioning supply

E

Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities

F

Construction

G

Wholesale and retail, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles

H

Transportation and storage

I

Accommodation and food service activities

J

Information and communication

K

Financial and insurance activities

L

Real estate activities

M

Professional, scientific and technical activities

N

Administrative and support service activities

O

Public administration and defense, compulsory social security

P

Education

Q

Human health and social work activities

R

Arts, entertainment and recreation

S

Other service activities

T

Activities of households as employers, undifferentiated goods and services producing activities of households for own use

U

Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies

 

         The 2010 PHC used the International Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO-08) as the basis for the national occupation classification. The ISCO-08 divides occupations into 10 major groups with each major group further organized into sub-major, minor and unit groups. The skill level and specialization required to competently perform the duties of the occupation are the basic criteria use to define the system. The major groups are as follows:

 

Table 4.National Occupation Classification

0

Armed forces occupations

Commissioned armed forces officers, non-commissioned armed forces officers and armed forces occupations, other ranks.

1

Managers

Chief executives, senior officials and legislators. Administrators and commercial managers, production and specialized services managers. Hospitality, retail and other services managers

2

Professional

Science and engineering professionals, health professionals, teaching professions, business and administration professionals, information and communication technology professionals, legal, social and cultural professionals

3

Technicians and associate professions

Science and engineering associateprofessionals, health associate professionals, Business and administration professionals, legal social, cultura and related associate professionals, Information and communication technicians

4

Clerical support workers

General and keyboard clerks, Customer services clerks, Numerical and material recording clerks, other clerical support workers

5

Service and sales workers

Personal service workers, sales workers, persona care workers, protective services workers

6

Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers

Market-oriented skilled forestry, fishery and hunting workers, subsistence farmers, fishers, hunters and gatherers

7

Craft and related trades workers

Building and related trades workers, excluding electricians, metal, machinery and related trades workers, handicraft and printing workers, electrical and electronic trades workers, food processing, wood working garment and other craft and related trades workers

8

Plant and machine operators, and assemblers

Stationary plant and machine operators, assemblers, drivers and mobile plant operators

9

Elementary occupations

Cleaners and helpers, agricultural, forestry and fishery laborers, laborers in mining, construction, manufacturing and transport, food preparation assistants, street and related sales and service workers, refuse workers and other elementary workers

Source: International Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO-08)

 

          The above categories of staff were grouped into the four spheral classes.

(1)Heads of organization and their structural units (services) constituted the Orgclass (P3)

(2)Specialists, and those with higher and mid-level qualificationsand engaged learning and health care personnel constitute the Socioclass (P1w)

(3)Specialists and employees involved in the preparation of information, documentation and accounting make up the Infoclass (P2).

(4)Other categories of staff, except heads and employees involved in the preparation of information, documentation, accounting and service constitute the Technoclass (P4)

 

Determining the number Spherons based o­n Statistics

         In determining the number of spherons of the employed, the statistical information of both the employed (economically active population) and the unemployed (economically inactive) from the 2010 PHC was applied as follows.

 

Results

Table 5. Personnel Categories

 

Economic Activity

 

Personnel Categories

 

 

 

P1w

 

P2

P3

P4

Economic Activities Table 3

 

1,011,670

139,823

230,184

8,866,310

 

The mid-year population of Ghana for 2010

         
            The mid year population of Ghana (24,512,104) was computed using the component method. The estimate used the census definition of people who are usually resident in Ghana (Those present at the census night). The estimates roll forward the population found by the previous census (2000), o­ne year at a time by accounting for births and deaths. Net migration was assumed to be zero.


 
Number of non-working population (P1n) in Ghana, 2010

          
            The economically not active persons were those who did not work and were not seeking for work. The category included homemakers, full time students, retired persons, the disabled and persons who were unable to work because of their age or ill-health.

 

Table 6. Employed self-production (non-working, economic inactive).

P1n

 

 

P1n = Employed self-production, sum of non-working, economic inactive

 

 

14,410,836

 

100 %

 

Did home duties (household chores/full time homeworker)

1,308,455

9.1

 

In full time education / student

6,480,996

45.0

 

Pensioner / Retired

143,105

1.0

 

Disabled / Too sick to work

222,649

1.5

 

Too old / Too young

5,873,446

40.8

 

Other

382,185

2.7

           Extracted from Ghana 2010 PHC Report (www.statsghana.gov.gh)

 

SPHERONS in Ghana, 2010

 

Table 7. Number of SPHERONS of Population in Ghana for 2010

 

Spheral Indices

 

The employed in branches of Four Spheres

 

2010

 

%

 

P

 

 

All population of Ghana:

P= P1+P2+P3+P4

 

24,658,823

 

100

 

P1

SOCIOCLASS, Spheron-1:

P1= P1w + P1n

 

15,422,506

 

62.5

 

P1w

 

P1w = Sum of employed (working) in the branches of Sociosphere

 

1,011,670

 

4.1

 

P EDUCATION

409,694

1.7

 

Q HEALTH AND SOCIAL WORK

125,254

0.5

 

S OTHER COMMUNITY,SOCIAL&

PERSONALSERVICE ACTIVITIES

476,722

1.9

 

P1n

 

P1n = Employed of Self-Production , sum of

nonworking

 

14,410,836

 

58.0

 

Did home duties

(household chores/full time homeworker)

 

1,308,455

 

5.3

 

In full time education / student

6,480,996

26.3

 

Pensioner / Retired

143,105

0.6

 

Disabled/Too sick to work

222,649

0.9

 

Too old / Too young

5,873,446

23.8

 

Other

382,185

1.5

 

P2

INFOCLASS, Spheron-2: = Sum of employed in the branches of Infosphere:

 

139,823

 

0.6

 

COMMUNICATION

43,600

0.2

 

Science and Scientific Services

96,223

0.4

 

P3

ORCLASS, Spheron-3: = Sum of employed in the branches of Orgsphere:

 

230,184

 

0.9

 

O Public Administration & Defense

154,559

0.6

 

K Financial Intermediation

72,666

0.3

 

U Activities of extra territorial organization

2,959

0.0

 

P4

TECHNOCLASS, Spheron-4: = Sum of employed in the branches of Technosphere:

 

8,866,310

 

36.0

 

A Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing

4345,723

17.6

 

B Mining & Quarrying

115,394

0.5

 

C Manufacturing

1,135,612

4.6

 

D Electricity & Gas

16,237

0.1

 

F Construction

321,360

1.3

 

G Wholesale & Retail Trade

1,981,290

8.0

 

I Accommodation & Food

574,671

2.3

 

H Transport & Storage

371,461

1.5

 

L Real Estate

4,562

0.0

         Source: Ghana 2010 PHC Report

 

SPHERONS in Ghana, 1984 and 2000


Table 8. SPHERONS of Ghanas population for the 1984 and 2000.

Spheral Indices

The Employed in Branches of Four Spheres

1984

2000

2000/%

P

All Population of Ghana: P = P1+P2+P3+P4

12,296,081

18,912,079

100

P1

SOCIOCLASS, Spheron-1:

P1= P1w + P1n

9,653,493

13,566,411

71.7

P1w

P1w = sum of employed (working) in the branches of Sociosphere:

2,428,112

2,330,907

12.3

 

P EDUCATION

1,287,885

2,007,043

10.6

 

Q HEALTH AND SOCIAL WORK

787,885

174,140

0.9

 

S OTHER COMMUNITY,SOCIAL&

PERSONALSERVICE ACTIVITIES

352,342

149,724

0.0

P1n

P1n = Employed of self-production, sum of non-working, economic inactive:

 

7,225,381

 

11,235,504

59.4

 

Homemakers

1,702,231

4,941,182

26.1

 

student

3,631,108

4,436,230

23.5

 

Vocational Trainees

10,987

647,629

3.4

 

Income Recipients

17,919

62,379

0.3

 

Old age

1,287,885

333,050

1.8

 

Retired / Pensioner

287,885

145,807

0.8

 

Persons with disability

159,712

94,401

0.5

 

others

415,539

574,826

3.0

P2

INFOCLASS, Spheron-2: = sum of employed in the branches of Infosphere:

796,375

2,223,541

11.8

 

COMMUNICATION

8,490

1,737,541

9.2

 

Science and Scientific Services

787,885

486,000

2.6

P3

ORCLASS, Spheron-3: = sum of employed in the branches of Orgsphere:

121,292

150,150

0.8

 

O Public Administration & Defence

97,548

105,764

0.6

 

K Financial Intermediation

21,915

40,386

0.2

 

U Activities of extra territorial organization

1,829

4,000

0.0

P4

TECHNOCLASS, Spheron-4: = sum of employed in the branches of Technosphere:

1,724,921

2,971,977

15.7

 

A Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing

117,529

302,505

1.6

 

B Mining & Quarrying

26,828

103,662

0.5

 

C Manufacturing

588,418

788,068

4.2

 

D Electricity & Gas

15,437

26,409

0.0

 

F Construction

64,686

232,611

1.2

 

G Wholesale & Retail Trade

774,157

1,119,395

5.9

 

I Accommodation & Food

17,990

169,274

0.9

 

H Transport & Storage

114,316

217,485

1.1

 

L Real Estate

5,560

12,568

0.0

 

Conclusion and Discussion


           Generally, the larger the employed population, the more wealth is created leading to the general well-being of the population. In Ghana, over the years, a number of job opportunities have been created in the public and private sectors in a wide range of economic activities. Contributing to employment opportunities in any country or area are factors such as the structure of the population, proportion of the economically active population and the labour market.

        Our research of the Ghanas spherons identified the four production spherons of Ghana and the employment status of its citizens in each spheral class. The study shows that, at 2010, the population size of Ghanas Socioclass (Spheron-1, P1) constituted the highest proportion (62.5%) of the employed in all four spheres. This was followed by the Technoclass (Spheron-4, P4) employing 36.0%, the Orgclass (Spheron-3, P3) with 0.9% and the Infoclass (Spheron-2, P2) with 0.6% in that order.

           Table 6 shows the employed by self-production, "autopoiesis", in accordance with the theory of Maturana [9] and its sociological interpretation of Luhmann [8]. This is a non-working, economically inactive group, but it is very important socially, preparing a human resource for economic activity or providing its exit from it by age or health.The highest proportion in this group is made up of full time persons in education / students (45.0%), followed by persons considered as too old or too young (40.8%) and those who did home duties household chores/full time homeworker (9.1%). The disabled/too sick to work, pensioners/retired and other constituted 1.5%, 1.0% and 2.7% % respectively.

            Table 7 shows the distribution and size of the spherons as determined by the employed statistics of the 2010 PHC and the spheral indices. Overall, the employed population (P) in Ghana at 2010 was 24,658,823. The Socioclass (P1), made up of working (P1w) and non-working (P1n) employed the highest number of people (62.5%). This figure is made up of 4.1 % (P1w) economically active (working) population and 58.0 % (P1n) economically in-active or non-working population. This situation signifies a very unhealthy situation for the country. The table further shows the infoclass (P2) employed 0.6%, the Orgclass (P3) employed 0.9% and the Technoclass (P4) 36.0%.

           Table 8 also shows the distribution of Spherons in Ghana in 1984 and 2000. The table shows that in 2000 about 7 in 10 persons (71.7%) of the employed population were in the Socioclass (P1). Over the period (1984 to 2000), this Spheron (P1) employed the largest proportion of the population growing from 9,653,493 in 1984 to 13,566,411 in 2000, an increase of about 40 % in a period of 16 years. The non-working population (P1n) also increased from 7,225,381 to 11,235,504 within the period unlike the working in this sphere population (P1w), which dropped from 2,428,112 to 2,330,907. The overall increase in the socioclass (P1), however, favoured (P1n), the non-working class which increased by 56% while the working class (P1w), dropped by 4 % within the period.

          Table 8 again shows the Infoclass (P2) recorded an increase in numbers over the period 1984 to 2000 almost three times (796,375 to 2,223,541). At 2000 the Infoclass t constituted 11.8 % of the all employed population.

          The Orgclass (P3) also recorded an increase in numbers from 121,292 in 1984 to 150,150 in 2000. At 2000 this Spheron constituted 0.8 % of the employed population. The Technoclass (P4), recorded an increase in numbers within the period and formed 15.7% of the population in 2000. This is the second highest after the Socioclass Spheron.

          In sum, there is a steady increase in the population of Ghana, mainly due to the growth of the socioclass/spheron-1. In it, the increase in the number of non-working population (P1n) in comparison with the working population (P1w) in this and other spheres has been worrying for many years. This situation puts pressure o­n the working population, increasing, o­n the o­ne hand, the workload o­n it, and o­n the other hand, reducing the opportunities of well-being for the non-working. Disproportions and disharmony in the dynamics of the Spherons number exacerbate the whole spectrum of social risks from economic and political to environmental and demographic.

         With the exception of an increase in employment in the technoclass (36.0%) for 2010 compared to 15.7% in 2000, there were declines in employment in the three other spherons (Infoclass, Orgclass and Socioclass) for 2010 compared to 2000. The growth in the number of technoclass in 2010 loses growth in employment in other spheres in 2010. This is a clear case of the spheral disharmony in the holistic structural system of Ghanaian spherons. This problem deserves the most intensive scientific research and close attention of the country's leadership.

An in-depth research of Ghanas spherons will provide fundamental information that is necessary to achieve an optimal balance in the structural harmony of Ghanaian spherons and spheres of social production. Achieving spheral balance and harmony will ensure the creation and harmonization of the necessary strategies for overcoming poverty, corruption and inequality. This will bring lasting peace and prosperity to the country.

Of course, we understand that our first statistical research of Ghanas spherons is o­nly the first swallow and the initial step o­n the long journey of innovative statistical digital studies of Ghana's social production as a whole. o­nly its holistic spheral research using spheral statistics and its universal digital technology (SIST [12]) will provide the country's leadership with a large-scale monitoring of the dynamics of all spheral imbalances and disproportions in the country. This will allow developing an effective long-term economic, political, demographic and social policy that prevents crises and conflicts in the framework of ensuring and strengthening a lasting sustainable peace from the structural harmony of Ghanas spherons. To this end, the country needs priority investment and the development of appropriate scientific innovations and spheral statistical digital technologies.

The same conclusion is for global peace. If such researches and their practical peacemaking consequences are obvious for separate countries, then they are adequate for other countries and for the gradual provision of global peace and prosperity of all nations o­n the basis of scientific knowledge and governance of the spherons structural harmony that generate them.

 

References:

1.Ghana Statistical Service.GSS (1986). 1984, Population Census of Ghana, (The gazette 2).

2.Ghana Statistical Service.GSS (2004). 2000 Population Census of Ghana (The gazette 3).

3.Ghana Statistical Service. GSS (2012). 2010 Population and Housing Census Summary Report of final Results.

4.Ghana Statistical Service. GSS (2012). 2010 Population and Housing Census Economic Activities in Ghana.

5.Ghana Statistical Service. GSS (2013) 2010 Population and Housing Census National Analytical Report (2013).

6.Ghana Statistical Service. GSS (2016). 2015 Labour force report.

http://www.statsghana.gov.gh

7.International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC), Rev.4. United Nations publication. ISBN: 987-92-1-161518-0.

8.Paetau Michael (2013) Niklas Luhmann and Cybernetics. Journal of Sociocybernetics. Vol 11 No 1/2 (2013): https://papiro.unizar.es/ojs/index.php/rc51-jos/article/view/790

9.Maturana, Humberto & Varela, Francisco ([1st edition 1973] 1980). Autopoiesis and Cognition: the Realization of the Living.

10.Regions of Russia. Socio-economic Indicators 2013. Statistical Collection. M: 2013

11.Semashko, Leo (2002) Tetrasociology: Responses to Challenges. St Petersburg: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=145

12.Kashina Olga and Semashko Leo (2014) Statistics of SPHERONS of Russia for 2010: Methodology, Sources and Number: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=593

12a. Semashko Leo and 173 coauthors from 34 countries (2016) Global Peace Science (pages: 51-60): http://peacefromharmony.org/docs/global-peace-science-2016.pdf

13.Takemi, K., Jimba, M., Ishii, S., Katsuma, Y., & Nakamura, Y. (2008). Human security approach for global health. The Lancet, 372(9632), 13-14. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(08)60971-x

14.Hornung Bernd, Scott Bernard, Semashko Leo (2003) Tetrasociology and sociocybernetics: Towards a comparison of the key concepts:

http://www.peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=160

 

Stephen Amoah, MSc Statistics, PhD Applied Statistics

Ghana Statistical Service,

Chief Statistician,

Home address: Accra, Ghana

Email: stephen.amoah@statsghana.gov.gh

Web:http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=837

 

Ayo Ayoola-Amale, J.D.

GHA-Africa President,

GHA Int. Vice-President,

Womens' GHA Co-Chair,

Ghana University Professor,

Nigeria & Ghana, Accra

Email: aayoamale@gmail.com

Web: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=524

30-07-18

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



3. Leo Semasko. Ghana: A scientific breakthrough in the statistical study of Spherons

 

Dear Steve and Ayo,

I just finished a very long and difficult but very interesting and important work for me to edit your research of the Ghanas Spherons as your full article (12 pages) o­n the IPRA Conference until July 31st. My editing concerned o­nly the initial and final part of the article and o­nly the terminology and stylistics, completely preserving all your wonderful ideas. I also did not touch your statistics and figures. But I changed the numbering of the Tables and added one reference. I also formatted the text in accordance with the scientific standards that I know. It will be published soon o­n the new page here:http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

Of course, you should carefully read this text, edit it, and approve it as the final version that you must send to the IPRA Conference by July 31 and me so that I can publish it o­n the website and in the GHA new book: Spherons: International Statistics. I was happy to translate your wonderful article into Russian, which I will also publish o­n the website and in the new GHA book. You both could use it as a doctoral dissertation/thesis o­n applied statistics and publish it in all the magazines, books and sites that you can get.

Your article and research is a unique scientific achievement of African science, having worldwide significance. It opens the way for a new social and humanitarian science, new economic and political digital governance in the government and new business, which we can talk about later, if you want. Your research is a new, the most perfect sample for similar studies in other countries, which I will now recommend to all. It is much better than the Russian study of the spherons in 2015 since you have raised the research of spherons to a new level in 3 years. You have outstripped all of the GHA: India, Pakistan, Kazakhstan and other countries! It is a fact.

Such unprecedented scientific information, its theory and methodology are not possessed today by any Scientific Academy, no government, no national security service, no peacemaking organization, no Internet moderator and no social network other than the GHA that created it by conducting the first statistical researches of the Spherons of different countries. This is a unique scientific achievement of the 21st century, opening the way to a global digital sustainable economy, the conscious building a harmonious civilization of a new multipolar world order and global peace for the whole future.

At the end of the year, after the IPRA Conference, I will recommend both of you for this study to the GHA highest honorary title: "World Harmony Creator", because your research opens the way for the scientific embodiment of the "Global Peace Science" from harmony of spherons outside of Russia, worldwide, in a practical way. Of course, I'm sure this unprecedented volunteer scientific research will bring you many other scientific, political, peacemaking, career and business honors in the future. This is an excellent example for all scientists and peacemakers of the GHA and WGHA to follow this way of statistical studies of Spherons in other countries. I sincerely, from all my heart, congratulate you o­n this unique scientific achievement and breakthrough.

With love,

Dr. Leo Semashko

http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=253

26-07-18


Dear friends,

In addition to the past (yesterday's) information, to expand your sociocybernetic peacemaking imagination, to facilitate your analytical and explanatory functions, and to deepen your innovative holistic tetranet thinking in researching and understanding the spherons, I am pleased to send you our with Olga Kashina study of Russia spherons as another example together with the Ghana example.

You are free to use from it all the necessary information: classifiers (this is the most complex and ambiguous statistical tool), tables, schemes, references, explanations, contents, title, etc. in your studies of spherons. This is natural, because we are a single scientific team in which the exchange of information o­nly enriches us and makes our studies more effective. I'm sure our research will be useful for all colleagues.

Best wishes for success in researching the spherons, opening a new page of humanitarian and peacemaking science, raising its thinking to a "substantially new level", as Einstein demanded more than 70 years ago "to survive mankind",

Leo,

01-08-18


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