1.2. Globalization Spheres as Spheres of a Dialog among Civilizations
This section consists of 14 abstracts prepared by the author for the 36th World Congress of the International Institute of Sociology (Beijing, China, July 7-11, 2004). Each abstract is limited to 500 words, as requested by Congress organizers. The number (where applicable) and title of the Congress session is indicated following the title of each abstract, and whether the abstract was accepted by the session manager. Ten of the 14 abstracts were submitted, and of these eight were accepted, i.e. 80%. (To compare: at the 15th World Congress of International Sociology Association, 2002, only 28% of the author’s abstracts were accepted). The abstract titles are reduced to their key concept, are grouped into four spheres, and within each sphere according to priority. Several abstracts were cut in length to avoid repetition, although not always with success. Some abstracts are fragments of the author’s book (2002), while others complement or essentially develop certain aspects of tetrasociology. The author proposes for future Congresses an additional session with the theme: ‘Tetrasociology as a platform for multicultural dialog among civilizations in an age of globalization’
The general theme of the 2004 Congress: ‘Social change in an age of globalization’. The author’s main task: to show how tetrasociology can effectively respond to the challenges of modern social change, through its tetra-spheres as spheres of globalization that facilitate a dialog among civilizations. Every abstract proposes a special, ‘tetrasociological’ project and a theme (its formulation) of multicultural dialog among different worldviews, religions, and cultures.
The abstracts show several directions of application for tetrasociological theory. This applied section is a continuation of the first, exclusively theoretical, section of the book. The author apologizes for inevitable repetitions of some fundamental statements of tetrasociology, but without them the full meaning of the abstracts would be lost.
(1) Spheres of Social Change
Plenary Session: Social Change in the Age Globalization.
To understand the complexity of social change in our age of globalization, it is essential to develop a "postpluralistic" theory. Globalization implies an interactive social world, where no social phenomenon can be completely separated from any other. Such an interactive approach to human complexity has recently been charted by Phillips (2001) and by Phillips, Kincaid & Scheff (2002). That approach and "tetrasociology" are "postpluralistic" in two senses. First, they depart from one-sided monism, and emphasise the necessity of multiple, but limited in number, factors, dimensions or «spheres» of a social space to explain human behaviour. Second, they are "postpluralist" in choosing to build on key elements from many theories, in contrast to simply tolerating multiple theories, which remain relatively isolated from one another.
There are many important postpluralistic theories that attempt to understand globalization through spheres of social space. For example, there is the work of Giddens (1990), who emphasises three spheres of social space (economy, politics, labour); Sklair (1991), with three spheres (economy, politics, culture); Robertson (1992), with four dimensions (individuals, nations, mankind, world) and (1995), with three spheres (economy, politics, culture); Appadurai (1996), with five spheres of the social landscape (etno, techno, finan, media, ideo); Beck (1998), with four spheres (politics, economy, ecology, culture); and Therborn (2000), with four dimensions/spheres (religion, economy, politics, culture).
"Tetrasociology" is a four-dimensional, postpluralistic theory of social space-time. It distinguishes four, equally necessary spheres of society, or social space: SOCIOSPHERE, INFOSPHERE, ORGSPHERE, TECHNOSPHERE. They are, simultaneously, spheres of the total population's employment (of «sphere» classes) and spheres that reproduce the social resources necessary for society's existence, and which are therefore constantly consumed. These spheres are equally productive, providing an egalitarian and harmonious vision for all people throughout any society that recognizes this fact and moves further away from the traditional view of antagonistic classes and an inevitable class struggle. Within each sphere, however, there are hierarchical relationships, but equality among spheres points away from emphasising hierarchy.
Within each sphere, an appropriate type of resource is reproduced: PEOPLE within the SOCIOSPHERE, INFORMATION within the INFOSPHERE, ORGANIZATIONS (various social norms and institutions) within the ORGSPHERE, and THINGS within the TECHNOSPHERE.
Also, within each sphere there are two types of social change: routine (reproductive, constantly repeated), and innovative, which has begun to greatly increase and spread among societies. The problems of innovative change, which have enveloped many societies, have become a subject of great interest in global sociology. For the last two centuries, this is illustrated by studies of industrialization/modernization, globalization, and informatization/virtualization. A key innovative change in the study of social classes is the identification of new social communities - sphere classes of similarly employed population groups - as actors of social harmony and solidarity.
To understand the complex innovative changes involved within globalization, we require new, postpluralistic theories of social space.
(2) Sphere Classes
Plenary Session: Globalization and Social Transformation
In the sociology of the 20th century, we had two approaches to understanding class structure: an emphasis on the ownership of property (Marxism), and an emphasis on multiple criteria of social and economic stratification (Western sociology). "Tetrasociology" offers a third approach, with a focus on "reproductive employment" (or "r-employment"), that includes Marxist and Western orientationsper se. R-employment includes all public and individual processes of societal reproduction. Its bearer and source is the entire population, and it is concerned with the life of the people from birth to death. Therefore, it is much broader than categories of work, economic employment, and related activity because it includes non-labour, non-economic, and non-active forms of employment. And we may view all r-employment as productive.
R-employment is divided according to four "spheres of reproduction" essential to society: the SOCIOSPHERE, made up of PEOPLE, the INFOSPHERE, centered on INFORMATION, the ORGSPHERE, including all ORGANIZATIONS, and the TECHNOSPHERE, focused on THINGS and the economy. Corresponding to these spheres are four productive sphere classes: 1. The SOCIOCLASS: employed in the sociosphere (includes healthcare, education, social security, sports, and the non-working population, such as pre-scholars, students, the unemployed, pensioners, etc.). 2. The INFOCLASS: employed in the infosphere, including workers in science, culture, communication, and information services. 3. The ORGCLASS: employed in orgsphere, including workers in politics, management, law, finance, defence, police, etc. 4. The TECHNOCLASS: employed in the technosphere, including the working class and peasants/farmers. Individuals can be simultaneously employed in several spheres, but primary employment, at any given time, is in only one.
The spheres of reproduction are equally necessary for a society. Realization of this equality promotes a balance and proportionality that provides the basis for social harmony. The sphere classes, employed in these spheres, are also equally necessary for a society. They are equal in employment, but differ in the quality of employment in each sphere. The equality and distinction of the sphere classes, and also their striving for balance, transforms them into harmonious and solidary classes. The spheres and sphere classes generally conform to a "law of harmony," in contrast to classes based on property, which generally conform to a "law of disharmony."
A Russian illustration: Russia’s population is shown as the sum of four sphere classes. Their dynamics are expressed by the following numbers, in millions, in 1991, 1996 and 2000:
Russian Sphere Classes
All Russian Population
Sphere classes exist in all countries, and in the world as a whole. only sphere classes are capable of controlling the forces of disharmony, and of developing ways to ensure a gradual increase in harmony. Sphere classes have enormous capacity to achieve social harmony. Their ability to accomplish this is based on the degree of their self-consciousness and «sphere identity.» This sphere-based harmony can constructively meet the challenges of globalization and overcome its problems. The formation of sphere classes is a key to social transformation of the modern world.
(3) Children’s Suffrage
Special Session: Children’s Rights in the Age of Globalization (ACCEPTED)
The history of suffrage is extensive. Suffrage was at first obtained by men, then women, then youth 18 years or over. The "black hole" is children under 18 years, comprising 20 - 35 % of the population. With regard to children the discrimination continues. Although children are citizens from the moment of birth, they become voters only after 18 years.
This suffrage "black hole" becomes a "hole" of politics. Children do not exist politically because they are denied suffrage, and thus lose their potential power to defend their interests. Therefore, children remain the most marginal social group, and this contributes to social problems. Children are left on care families, parents, which opportunities are very limited. The result, for example, is that a great many children are deprived of high-grade care within society. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) is carried out only to a very limited extent. This deplorable situation dictates the necessity of granting children suffrage at least indirectly: EACH CHILD SHOULD HAVE A RIGHT TO VOTE, EXERCISED BY PARENTS OR TRUSTEES OF THE CHILD. Children have parents or trustees who understand their problems better than others, and who are capable of articulating their needs. It becomes a requirement of society in the age of globalization. From a "tetrasociological" point of view, movement of the global world toward social harmony, and overcoming the injustices of globalization, are impossible without taking into account children’s interests.
But realistically, how can children's suffrage expand, given the fact of legal incapacity of children under 18 years? Although it would be difficult, a special UN Convention coupled with appropriate laws in the different countries could work toward giving parents the legal right to vote for their children. Such a mechanism, worked out in detail, could be an effective way to bring about children’s suffrage. What social consequences might we expect to result?
1. Improved overall situation of children, including an increase in the quality of their socialization, care and education, balancing their rights with those of other groups, and lowering the level of children's criminality, drug addiction, homelessness, and alienation.
2. Increased political role of children and their families. This will increase their political activity, culture, and sense of political responsibility. Parents of young children will vote not only for themselves but also for their children.
3. Strengthened family ties will increase the role and raise the esteem of the parents not only in society, but also in the eyes of their children, and it will increase the role and rights of women as mothers.
4. Strengthened democracy, as a result of expanding its social base.
5. Increased political role of the social sphere as a whole.
The problem of children’s rights and the realization of an appropriate UN Convention will not be addressed until children’s suffrage is recognised and instituted.
(4) Adequate Feminism
Session 6: Globalization and Women (ACCEPTED)
There is an important problem of attaining gender equality - or women's rights, on the same level as men's rights, in all of society spheres. Information from the " UN Fund Development for Women" indicates that over the last ten years only eight countries have enforced the International Conventions on observance of the sexual equality principle. Women continue to make up a majority of the poor, and do not have equivalent access to all resources. Despite many significant successes, discrimination has not ceased, and in some cases the status of women has decreased during this period.
Sociological theory is among the social reasons for gender inequality. In the history of sociology almost all of its theories, with few exceptions, were created by men and for men. The domination of men in all of society's spheres is reflected in sociological theory. Until recently, there were no sociological theories that had answered in the interests of women. Working against gender equality were: political totalitarism, male chauvinism, religious fundamentalism, and theoretical monism, which are all one, in effect. Our hypothesis is: the monistic theories (for example, of Plato, Hegel, and Marx) answered to the interests of men, whereas, postpluralistic theories answer to the interests of men and women. "Postpluralist" theories build on a limited number of key elements from many theories, in contrast to tolerating many theories that remain relatively isolated from one another. one postpluralist theory is "tetrasociology," developed at the end of the 20th century, pointing toward social harmony and equality, including gender equality.
Tetrasociology is one of the possible responses to the feminist challenge. For example, the masculine potential for aggression and violence, exploited over past centuries, loses its social priority in the information/network society toward which tetrasociology points. The foundation of modern civilization was built on masculine priority in the past, but female priority will give perfection and provide a new source of development in the future. This priority is created by real female equality. In the information society, accepting an ideal of social prosperity on the base of harmony and information, the priority is to incorporate female harmony and a peaceful disposition.
Recognizing female equality will open up the development of society and foster peaceful social relationships. Social harmony and prosperity require: a) equal participation of women in all of society's spheres, including government, b)equal power for women throughout society, c) suffrage for minors exercised by their parents or trustees, giving new rights to mothers, and (d) recognition that domestic labour by women is just as productive as labour by men, and it should be paid.
Tetrasociology, affirming the necessity of equal participation of women in all spheres, including government, is feminist theory that is adequate to the interests of both women and men in the age of globalization.
(5) Alienation and Appropriation
Session 66: Alienation Theory and Research: New Directions (ACCEPTED)
Session 68: Alienated popular culture: the non-reflection of reality in culture (ACCEPTED)
In the capitalist system, Marx allocated three kinds of alienation of man: from the process of labour/production, from the product of labour, and from itself. It ismutual alienation of man and society. Marx saw private property as the total source of alienation. Marx thought that state ownership of socialism could overcome alienation. However, the practices of the former communist camp have shown us that state ownership produced alienation. Marx created the theory of alienation but did not create a theory of appropriation to overcome alienation. His ideas of state ownership, socialism and proletarian revolution did not prove the theory. The weakest part of his theory was the idea of a classless society. The refusal of a class concept excluded from the theory a recognition that any social actors are capable of overcoming alienation. A new theory is needed, of new classes, as new social actors who are capable of overcoming alienation.
One such theory is tetrasociology, as a four-dimensional postpluralistic conception of social space-time allocating new, sphere classes, not based on property or stratification criteria, but on reproductive employment (r-employment) of people. The r-employment of people exists in all public and individual processes of reproduction, in the lifecycle of people from birth to death. Therefore, it encompasses more than the categories of labor, economic employment, property, and related activity. Non-labour, non-economic, non-proprietary, non-active forms of r-employment exist. Any r-employment has a subject and a product, therefore it is always productive.
R-employment is divided according to four "spheres of reproduction," by the criterion of reproduction of one of four subjects/products. SOCIOSPHERE by the subject/product of reproduction of PEOPLE. INFOSPHERE - INFORMATION. ORGSPHERE - ORGANIZATIONS. TECHNOSPHERE (ECONOMY) - THINGS.
Corresponding to these spheres are four productive sphere classes: 1. The SOCIOCLASS: employed in the sociosphere (healthcare, education, etc.). 2. The INFOCLASS: employed in the infosphere (science, culture, etc.). 3. The ORGCLASS: employed in the orgsphere (politics, management, etc.). 4. The TECHNOCLASS: employed in the technosphere.
The spheres of reproduction are equally necessary for society, which results in a balance and proportionality that provides a basis for social harmony. The sphere classes, employed in these spheres, are also equally necessary for society. They are equal in importance, but differ in the quality of employment within each sphere. The equality and distinction of the sphere classes, and also their striving for balance, transforms them into harmonious and solidary classes. They generally conform to a "law of harmony", by contrast with classes based on property, which generally conform to a "law of disharmony".
Alienation is overcome by mutual appropriation of man and society, through harmonious relations of the spheres and sphere classes. Conscious change by people in sphere employment, in the reproduction spheres, is capable of directing society and man toward mutual appropriation and toward overcoming alienation.
A vivid example of alienation is the abuse of modern, popular culture, which in the pursuit of profit often breaks down barriers to alienation, especially for youth. This misuse relies on the branch/bureaucratic ownership of property of the mass communications industry - and contributes to branch cultural disharmony, which departs from reality and causes alienation. Marx proposed that the ownership of private property is the entire cause of alienation.
From a tetrasociological point of view, the source of disharmony and alienation of popular culture is the branch organization of society, rather than state or private ownership of property. only the harmony of spheres and sphere classes can overcome alienation, by mutual appropriation of human and society, so the way to cultural harmony and appropriation lies through harmony of the spheres and sphere classes.
(6) Social Harmony as the Key Value
Session 71: Social Values in the Age of Globalization (ACCEPTED)
The basis of social organization of an industrial society is produced by the branch of industry. The industrial branch/bureaucratic organization has affirmed a branch system of values: freedom, ownership of property, labor, legal equality, personal advantage, independence, enlightenment, pluralism, pragmatism and democracy. There are a pair of central values: property and freedom, the key to which is that freedom forms an axis for a branch system of values. on this basis such values as justice, love, brotherhood, tolerance, non-violence, peace, humanism, equality of opportunities and the harmony of man were declared, but in the bureaucratic reality of the 19th and 20th centuries they have been replaced by injustice, hatred, enmity, intolerance, violence, war, non-humanism, growing inequality and ‘one-dimensional man’ (Marcuse, 1964). The branch organization and system of values have been overturned by total branch/ bureaucratic disharmony.
In the age of globalization, the basis for social organization becomes a sphere of society. The sphere is a complex of branches, incorporated by one subject/product, and reproduces a necessary social resource. The many theorists of globalization allocate different numbers of spheres: Giddens (1990), Sklair(1991), and Robertson (1992) - three; Appadurai (1996) - five; Beck (1998) and Therborn (2000) - four spheres.
Tetrasociology, as a global sociological version, allocates four equally necessary and sufficient resources of society, reproduced in the appropriate spheres by appropriate sphere classes: SOCIOCLASS, INFOCLASS, ORGCLASS and TECHNOCLASS. The sphere classes differ not over property ownership, but on the basic reproductive employment in one of the spheres, and therefore they exclude class antagonism. A new sphere organization of society arises on the basis of spheres and sphere classes. If the branches submit to the law of branch disharmony, then the spheres and sphere classes submit to the law of sphere harmony. This law posits the tendency of an irregular development of spheres to the maximum of their balance, equilibrium and proportionality, which comprises social harmony.
A new system of universal values: social harmony, sphereemployment, change of employment, justice, love, brotherhood, tolerance, non-violence, peace, humanism, equality of opportunities, and harmonious man is formed as the base of a sphere (postindustrial) organization. It is a sphere system of values in which the axis becomes a pair: social harmony-sphere employment. The key value is the value of social harmony. The priority of this value provides not only a formal but also a real statement of the other named values, which are identical to social harmony and comprise its different aspects.
Social harmony is pivotal because, of all universal values, it's the one that can save the world and man from self-destruction. Social harmony is eternal and the oldest humanitarian value, figuring in poems as old as Homer's, extensively developed by ancient culture and treasured during every period of human history. Aristotle understood it as the "golden mean" and "proportionality of parts of the whole," Leibniz, as "pre-established harmony," and the Renaissance, as "harmonious person," which became the symbol of humanism. "Beauty which will save the world" (Dostoevsky) is nothing other than social harmony. Tetrasociology understands it as a desire for balance among the spheres of society/man. Desire for the spheres' inner harmony, and harmony with society's spheres, is man's saving remedy. Desire for harmony of its spheres and for harmony with other societies' and civilizations' spheres is society's saving remedy. The saving remedy is not in harmony itself, because, being no more than an eternal ideal, it is unattainable, but in people's, societies' and civilizations' ever-lasting efforts to achieve it. Social harmony has been waiting for millenniums for its self-aware actors, for social actors able to perpetually struggle for it. Social sciences, tetrasociology being first among them (although not the only one!), only now are approaching the task of defining and solving this problem, which is of paramount importance for the survival of man and humankind.
The actors of social harmony can only be the sphere classes. Their harmony is impossible without personal harmony. In the future, social and personal harmony will become the moral norm. All that is disharmonious, e. g., poverty, wealth, injustice, hatred, violence, war, etc., will be considered immoral.
The sphere system of universal values does not reject the branch system of values, as such, but includes itself, and reconstructs the branch system of values on the new bases of social harmony.
(7) Plurotheism Hypothesis
Session 16: Religion and Globalization (ACCEPTED)
A tendency for religions to unite began over a century ago, with the ecumenical movement and inter-confessional dialog, but it was not very successful. The reason was the absence of a common and equal social basis. A common faith is a faith of equal people. Different faiths are faiths of unequal people. Differences between the faiths foster, promote and sanctify world inequality, leading to clashes of civilizations, to religion-inspired wars, etc. The global world vitally needs a global common faith. In discovering equal sphere classes of the world population, tetrasociology discovered the socialfoundations for the unity of religions, whereas the Bahai faith discovered the religious foundations.
Tetrasociology allocates four equally necessary and sufficient resources of a society, reproduced in the appropriate spheres, by appropriate sphere classes of the population. These resources are PEOPLE, INFORMATION, ORGANIZATIONS, and THINGS. They are reproduced by the SOCIOSPHERE, INFOSPHERE, ORGSPHERE and TECHNOSPHERE (economy); and by sphere classes: SOCIOCLASS, INFOCLASS, ORGCLASS and TECHNOCLASS. The spheres of reproduction are equally necessary for society, and aim for a balance and proportionality that establish the basis for social harmony. The sphere classes, employed in these spheres, are also equally necessary for society. They are equal in the importance of their employment, but differ in the quality of employment within each sphere. Equality and distinction of the sphere classes in employment, and also their striving for balance, transforms them into harmonious and solidary classes of the world.
On this social basis, tetrasociology advances a hypothesis of PLUROTHEISM as a possible way of religious union at an intermediary platform of the Bahai belief. Plurotheism is presented as the union of many images of God in Shefer’s (1996) 'paradigm of unity' of religions, which he found exemplified in the Bahai belief.
Plurotheism is not the polytheism of the past, any more than the monotheism of modern religions is; rather, it is an organic synthesis of the religions on the basis of equality. One of the ancient analogs of plurotheism is the recognition by ancient Romans of the gods of the countries seized by them. They placed these deities in the Pantheon for the purpose of extinguishing international conflicts, and to maintain unity in the Roman empire.
Principles of Plurotheism:
1. Equality of all religions as different images of one God. In the faith of anyone, His image is one Faith.
2. Equal rights in the life of all religions, recognizing one God for all.
3. All religions have in one God the basis of unity expressed by universal spiritual values.
4. There is a form in which universal values can be acceptable to all religions.
5. All religions have inalienable rights to the preservation of the originality of their beliefs, as part of any union, according to Tillich's (1960) principle of religions«supplementation,» and according to «ecumenical» synthesis. See also: Siebert (1994) and Bachika (2002).
Plurotheism is a new statement of inter-confessional dialogue and religions tolerance. However, it is helpful not to branch classes but to sphere classes, as actors of social harmony.
(8) Studies of the Globalization Spheres
Plenary Session: Sociological Studies of Globalization
Globalization is multidimensional, but empirical studies of it generally are limited and non-comparable. Two basic reasons for this are (1) the use of traditional indices, which express some economic changes well, but others poorly, and (2) the absence of a general theoretical framework specifying the dimensions of globalization. one possible solution to these interconnected problems is «tetrasociology,» as a four-dimensional global theory of social space - time.
Tetrasociology offers a system of three fundamental dimensions of globalization space: resources, processes, and structures. These dimensions are named, accordingly: statics, dynamics, and structuratics. For each globalization dimension it allocates four very large units - spheres. Four spheres of resources: people, information, organizations, things. Four spheres of the reproduction processes: production, distribution, exchange, consumption. Four spheres of structures are: social, informational, organizational and technical/economic spheres of reproduction. These spheres superimpose innovative global changes on the existing, routine, or traditional changes. The structural spheres unite the process and resource spheres and include the entire population. They are equally productive, giving us an egalitarian and harmonious vision for all people throughout any society. Thus, twelve spatial globalization dimensions are assessed at all levels: country, region, and world.
For statistical expression of resources, tetrasociology enters matrixes of the sphere indices. A base matrix of sphere indices is size 4õ4, and includes 16 special, aggregated indices expressing spheres, and are therefore named "sphere indices". They do not exclude traditional, economic and statistical indices. Rather, they unite and supplement them. But their differences from traditional analyses allow us to speak about special sociological statistics. In this way, we can analyse resources, processes, and structures within each sphere. This allows us to do essentially new empirical studies of globalization and to receive essentially new empirical information, which can deal with enormous complexity and also be comparable at different geographical levels for different societies. We might call such studies «tetraempirical» or «tetrasociological.» They do not exclude, but supplement and order traditional studies. Tetrasociological studies help us to distinguish global innovative changes from local and routine changes.
Here are some examples of tetrasociological studies that might be done:
A. Global changes in the social sphere
1. Changes in the population or size of this sphere over the last 20 years.
2. Changes in the three dimensions of this sphere for the world.
3. Changes in the three dimensions of this sphere for a given country.
4. Changes in the three dimensions of this sphere for a given region.
B. Global changes in the information sphere
5. Changes in information resources over the last 20 years.
6. Changes in the three dimensions of this sphere for the world.
7. Changes in the three dimensions of this sphere for a given country.
8. Changes in the three dimensions of this sphere for a given region.
Analogous studies for the other two spheres could be initiated. Of course, such studies would require significant financial resources.
(9) New Statistics and IT
Session 13: IT & Communication (NOT ACCEPTED)
Tetrasociology is a postpluralistic theory of four-dimensional social space-time, each coordinate axis of which (People, Information, Organizations, Things) is expressed by four variable constants. Tetrasociology is not limited by the theory. It develops into new informational technologies (IT). This new IT development has been used since 1980. It is called 'Sphere/sociological Informational-Statistical Technology' (SIST). There are more than seventy examples of its application. Let's consider the steps of tetrasociology's transition from the theory to SIST.
1. Sociological. It is comprised of 16 variable constants of social space-time. Their measurement is reduced to measurements of resource constants: People(P), Information(I), Organizations(O), Things(T).
2. Statistical. It is made up of a system of sphere statistical indices expressing variable constants, adding economic branch indices, free of the usual scantiness of economic indices. This system is created on the basis of a 4x4 matrix of sphere indices. It has the following form:
P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4, where P is population, and P1, P2, P3, P4 - its sphere classes,
I = I1 + I2 + I3 + I4, where I is the information, and I1, I2, I3, I4 - its complexes,
O = O1 + O2 + O3 + O4, where O is the organizations, and O1, O2, O3, O4 - their blocks,
T = T1 + T2 + T3 + T4, where T is things, and T1, T2, T3, T4 - their groups.
The base matrix creates a set of derivative matrixes for statistical expression of various social resources, processes, structures and states. They give some essentially new, unknown until now, information about social objects. The addition of branch indices to sphere indices is adequate for sociology, and the sphere indices are therefore sociological.
3. Mathematical/algorithmic. It is comprised of a system of algorithms of transformations of sphere/sociological indices, and also of appropriate statistical-mathematical models specified as kinds of products of SIST.
4. Program. It is made up of a set of Software products (SPs) forming a large family: 'Individual', 'Country', 'World Society', 'Environment', ‘Sphere System of Classification and Search of Internet Resources’, etc. SIST is combined with the traditional IT. The main difference consists of a transformation of the content, but not the form of social information. Its content is controlled by means of the new sphere indices, making SIST both unique and global. Similar technologies are not available elsewhere in the world .
SIST is used not only as IT but also as a new means of communication. The SIST language is universal, and usable for people of different cultures, religions, national languages, races, classes, etc. Therefore, it can become the basis for a new kind of communication among them. SIST can become an effective tool of information interchange, mutual understanding, dialogue, resolution of conflicts, and achievement of social harmony. SIST is offered as a project for international and interdisciplinary development, requiring a significant financial investment.
(10) Information Security
Session 79: Society and Security (ACCEPTED)
The complete unexpectedness of the terrorist acts in the USA on 9/11, 2001 and in Moscow 10/23-26, 2002, made it impossible, for even the most powerful intelligence services of the world, to see what was coming. These terrorist attacks obviously prove the absence of an adequate information mechanism for security.
In order to make the tracking of terrorist activities «informationally transparent,» it is necessary to establish what resources, at what moment, and from what structures "disappear" and pass to terrorists. A universal informational and statistical instrument is needed to obtain this systematic information. Traditional economic statistics are insufficient for these purposes because they are «irregular,» with many internal gaps, that miss essential information.
A system of global information security is offered by tetrasociology, based on the new, sphere sociological statistics that it has developed.
In tetrasociology, a universal system of parameters of social space-time is created, expressed by a universal system of statistical matrixes of sphere indices, which can be used as indicators to predict deviances, including potentials for terrorism. on this basis, for any city, state or country, a " Sphere System of Information Security" (SSIS) can be constructed. The association of all SSIS, of the majority of the countries of the world, will create a Global SSIS. The sphere indices language will then be identical at all levels for global comparison.
On the basis of SSIS at any level, the base matrix of 4x4 sphere indices indicating a threat of terrorism, is as follows:
Pd = P1d+P2d+P3d+P4d, where Pd is human resources indicating a threat of terrorism, and P1d, P2d,
P3d, P4d are their groups from different spheres of employment;
Id = I1d+I2d+I3d+I4d, where Id is information resources indicating a threat of terrorism, and I1d, I2d,
I3d, I4d are its complexes from different spheres;
Od = O1d+O2d+O3d+O4d, where Od is organizational (including financial) resources indicating a
threat of a terrorist attack, and O1d, O2d, O3d, O4d are its complexes from different spheres;
Td = T1d+T2d+T3d+T4d, where Td is material resources indicating a possible terrorist attack, and
T1d, T2d, T3d, T4d are its sphere groups.
On the basis of a base matrix, a set of derivative matrixes are generated, expressing different resources, processes, and structures for different countries and regions. This system expresses an entire spectrum of the resource inputs and outputs of terrorism. The main goal of information surveillance in SSIS is the security of citizens and States, the prevention of attacks, and in the end, the complete neutralization of terrorism.
The single most powerful obstacle in the way of the creation of a global SSIS is the regime of commercial/State secrets. International terrorism has created a new global dilemma: global security or commercial/State secrets? More secrets - less security. The secrets have branch/bureaucratic meaning, whereas global security has meaning in human terms. Which is more important for the modern world? It is not an easy question. The cost of SSIS is great, but probably no greater than the cost of one nuclear bomb.
(11) Global Democracy
Session 69: Democracy in the Global World (ACCEPTED)
A global world needs a global form of democracy that does not impinge on nations, cultures, traditions and political specificity. Modern forms of democracy cannot be a model for global democracy because they are based on branch classes and branch/bureaucratic organization of power. The branches and bureaucracy mutually reproduce each other and create elite/authoritarian domination, but they are non-relevant to globalization. Branch classes complement branch democracy. Global democracy requires a cardinal transformation to NON-branch bases of power. Global democracy should have global structural, social and organizational bases. Their variant in the form of «sphere democracy» is conceptualised in tetrasociology as a postpluralistic, four-dimensional theory of global social space - time.
The structural basis of global democracy is composed of four spheres of social reproduction, within which, their own subjects, products and technologies differ: 1. Sociosphere: its subject and product are people, who are socially reproduced by means of humanitarian technologies of education, health etc. 2. Infosphere: its subject and product are information reproduced by informational technologies (IT). 3. Orgsphere: its subject and product are the organizations (political, legal, etc.) that are reproduced by organizational technologies. 4. Technosphere: its subject and product are the things which are reproduced by industrial and agrarian technologies. The spheres unite the relevant branches and conform to the law of harmony of spheres, which overcomes the law of branch disharmony. The reproduction spheres are inherent to all societies, therefore they provide a structural basis for global democracy.
The social basis of global democracy is comprised of the productive sphere classes of the population, which differ with respect to reproductive employment in each of the spheres: 1. SOCIOCLASS: employed in the sociosphere, the workers in branches of healthcare, education etc., and also all non-working members of the population employed in reproduction itself; 2. INFOCLASS: employed in the infosphere, the workers in branches of science, culture, and communication, etc.; 3. ORGCLASS: employed in the orgsphere, the workers in branches of politics, finance, defence, etc.; 4. TECHNOCLASS: employed in the technosphere, the working class and peasants/farmers. Sphere classes are formed in the globalization epoch, together with the formation of their self-consciousness and identity. As sphere classes differ, not in relation to property, but in relation to reproductive employment, they are harmonious classes. They are inherent to all societies, therefore they provide the relevant social basis for global democracy.
The organizational basis of global democracy apportions an EQUAL distribution of State power among sphere classes, and not only among classes but also between men and women, and between the younger and older generations. Each child should have the right to vote, exercised by the parents or trustees of the child. Such democracy is "sphere," "tetrar," or "global." Its remote historical analog is the Tetrarchia of the ancient Greek and Roman empires. The democratic model of the European Union is the closest form of it today.
Let's formulate a plan for a four-polar world order, with conditions of global sphere democracy, for the 21st century. For conditions of sphere democracy, all of the world’s countries will be ranked (nominated) on development priority in four spheres, resulting in creation of a dynamic, four-polar world order. It means all countries will be distributed in one of four groups, with a development priority of either sociosphere, infosphere, orgsphere, or technosphere, given one scale for comparison of levels of their development in each sphere.
(12) Social Harmony Policy
Plenary Session: Social Development and Social Policy
In the sociology of the 20th century we had two approaches to understanding class structure: an emphasis on the ownership of property (Marxism), and an emphasis on multiple criteria for stratification (Western sociology). A third approach is offered by "Tetrasociology," with a focus on "reproductive employment" (or "r-employment"), that includes Marxist and Western orientations.
R-employment includes all public and individual processes of reproduction. Its bearer and source is the entire population. R-employment is a lifecycle and life energy of people from birth to death. Therefore, it is much broader than the categories of work, economic employment, and related activity because it includes non-labour, non-economic and non-active forms of employment. R-employment is always productive, because it always has a result and an impact on society.
R-employment is divided according to four "spheres of social reproduction". There is the SOCIOSPHERE, made up of PEOPLE, the INFOSPHERE, centring on INFORMATION, the ORGSPHERE, including all ORGANIZATIONS, and the TECHNOSPHERE, focusing on THINGS and the economy. Corresponding to these spheres are four productive sphere classes: 1. The SOCIOCLASS: employed in the sociosphere, including healthcare, education, social security, sports, and the non-working population, such as pre-scholars, students, the unemployed, pensioners, etc.; 2. The INFOCLASS: employed in the infosphere, including workers in science, culture, communication, and information services; 3. The ORGCLASS: employed in orgsphere, including workers in politics, management, law, finance, defence, etc.; and 4. The TECHNOCLASS: employed in the technosphere, including the working class and farmers/peasants. Individuals can be simultaneously employed in several spheres, but their main employment is counted only in one.
The spheres of reproduction are equally necessary for society, and they achieve a balance and proportionality that forms the basis for social harmony. The sphere classes, employed in these spheres, are also equally necessary for society. They are equal in employment, but differ in the quality of employment in each sphere. The equality and distinction of the sphere classes, and also their striving for balance, transforms them into harmonious and solidary classes. The spheres and sphere classes generally conform to a "law of harmony".
On this basis it is possible to state a hypothesis: the general direction for social policy in the globalization epoch will be social harmony of sphere classes. This direction is multidimensional, and includes many aspects. First, formation of sphere classes is determined by growth of their self-consciousness and ‘sphere identity’ as harmonious actors. This helps to overcome aggression due to separate religious, linguistic, national, branch, and other disharmonious identities. Second, their must be growth of the middle classes to overcome the extremes of poverty and wealth. Third, a transition from a priority of economic policy to a priority of social policy. Fourth, a transition from branch/bureaucratic to sphere distribution of State power among the four sphere classes (creating a sphere democracy). Fifth, the introduction of children’s suffrage, under 18 years of age, represented by their parents or trustees.
(13) Communist Multi-Party of China
Session 54: Modern China Studies in The Age of Globalization (ACCEPTED)
Globalization is accompanied by increasing democratization, yielding new forms of social structure. The countries of the former communist camp have changed their social structures dramatically. The severe problems associated with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) contributed to the collapse of the USSR, with replacement of a communist one-party system by a democratic multi-party system.
The Communist Party of China (CPC) has remained in power only because it has decided on economic liberalization, encouragement of private property, and change from a proletarian to a national Party. However, this is not enough. Democratization is required inside the CPC, as a rigid, one-party system threatens a more destructive collapse in China than it did in the USSR. Therefore, the following gradual (5 to 10 years) CPC transition to a communist multi-party can be a logical step for adaptation to a new world.
The communist multi-party system conception was developed by me in 1988 for CPSU, but it was rejected, and that rejection contributed to the destruction of the CPSU. It disintegrated to eight hostile parties. Also important, organizational resources were destroyed, which Russia could not restore until now. That conception was created within "tetrasociology" (then called the «sphere approach») as a multidimensional social theory that divides a society into four equally necessary spheres of reproduction: SOCIOSPHERE reproducing PEOPLE, INFOSPHERE - INFORMATION, ORGSPHERE - ORGANIZATIONS and TECHNOSPHERE reproducing THINGS (the economy). This analysis builds on the ideas of Marx, Braudel, Parsons, Bourdieu and other sociologists.
According to these spheres, the country’s population is divided into four sphere classes, by criterion of basic employment in one of the spheres. These classes are: 1. SOCIOCLASS: employed in the sociosphere (includes healthcare, education, social security, sports, and non-working population: children, pensioners, etc.). 2. INFOCLASS: employed in the infosphere, including workers in science, culture, communication. 3. ORGCLASS: employed in orgsphere, including workers in politics, management, finance, defence, etc. 4. TECHNOCLASS: employed in the technosphere, including the working class and peasants. As they are not divided on ownership of property or branch/employment, they are not antagonistic but solidary (friendly), labor, which excludes the disharmony of class struggle. Spheres and sphere classes generally conform to a "law of harmony,"in contrast to classes based on property, which generally conform to a "law of disharmony".
With reference to China’s sphere classes, the CPC transformation into a union of four solidary, labor, communist parties is possible. The process of transition to a communist multi-party system can begin with the creation inside the CPC of four equal-in-rights factions which then can be allocated to independent communist parties, with the CPC becoming the union of all four. CPC’s multi-party system could give China a smooth and bloodless transformation within the framework of the existing State system, thus adapting to a democratic and multipolar world order. This multi-party CPC would win respect for China throughout the world, lower the intensity of conflict, and raise harmony in them. The author is ready to participate in development of this project, which can become a part of the «Chinese Project».
(14) Ecological Harmony
Session 8: Globalization and Environmentalism. (NOT ACCEPTED)
The ecological crisis of the 20th century is beset by total branch/bureaucratic disharmony, by excessive and uncontrolled development of material production, and first of all by armaments. Total branch disharmony is a consequence of social system disharmony, which is reproduced by branch/bureaucratic industrial organization. Its basis was produced by the branches of industry, branches that are institutionally represented by firms, monopolies, transnational corporations and States. They are a source of total disharmony, including ecological crisis, which is insuperable for branch/bureaucratic disharmonious organization. The ecological harmony of nature and society is especially unattainable because of it. Ecological harmony essentially requires other harmonious social organizations.
In the globalization age, a basis for social organization of post industrial or information society becomes a sphere of reproduction as a sphere of society. The sphere is a complex of branches which is incorporated by one subject/product and reproduces a resource, necessary for society. Different theorists of globalization allocate a different number of spheres.
Tetrasociology, as a version of global sociology, allocates four equally necessary and sufficient resources of a society reproduced in the appropriate spheres by appropriate sphere classes of the population. These resources are PEOPLE, INFORMATION, ORGANIZATIONS and THINGS. They are reproduced by the SOCIOSPHERE, INFOSPHERE, ORGSPHERE and TECHNOSPHERE (economy); and by sphere classes: SOCIOCLASS, INFOCLASS, ORGCLASS and TECHNOCLASS. The sphere classes differ not over property, but on the basic reproductive employment in one of the spheres, and therefore they exclude class antagonism. A new sphere organization arises on the basis of spheres and sphere classes which conform to the law of sphere harmony. This law shows a tendency for an irregular development of spheres towards the maximum of their balance, equilibrium, and proportionality, which constitute social harmony. It overcomes the law of branch disharmony.
Tetrasociology offers a transition from a disharmonious and catastrophic environmentalism to a harmonious one. From a tetrasociological position, the ecological harmony is reached by social harmony of the sphere classes and by harmonious organization of the society and State. only their harmonious organization will ensure ecological harmony. The new information technology created on the basis of new, global statistics in tetrasociology is a means of harmonization of society and ecology. This technology includes economic statistics, but is much broader, and qualitatively different. A harmonious global ecology is not required for traditional branch actors, but it is necessary to sphere classes as promoters of harmony and sustainable development. However, this is difficult to hope for. The realization of technological harmony will not occur until after the self-identification and self-organisation of the sphere classes. only they are capable of controlling technosphere influences on the environment and harmonization of them. Sustainable development from harmony of the social world with the natural environment can be the result only of global social harmony. In the globalization age, mankind can respond to the ecological challenge through social harmony of the sphere classes.
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