2.8. Discovery of sociological statistics
In social time, in people's employment, SST dialectics finds the basis for the transition from a qualitative description of the social world to a quantitative expression of its variable constants within an indices system. This basis is the source of TetraSociology's discovery of new, sociological statistics, which do not have analogues. No other sociological theory, to our knowledge, has or has tried to create a system of its own, sociological, statistical indices. Sociology still does not have indices, which prohibits its from becoming a full-fledged, independent science. If sociology utilises statistics, then it is only traditional economic statistics. This significantly curtails sociology's abilities and limits its pragmatic potential, making out of it a double of economics' of little use. The creation of a radically new system of statistics and statistical indices was attempted 20 years ago within the framework of TetraSociology (then known as "The Sphere Approach"). The following is a general outline of the statistics.
First, the basis for qualitatively new, sociological indices is formed by the 16 SST constants; the indices denote the constants' variable quantitative values. SST constants being macrosociological, the indices designating them are also macrosociological; the set of the indices forms a sociological macrostatistics called tetrar, or TMS. This statistics is not economic, but sociological, because it is based on SST's sociological constants, on their common denominator and gauge - people's employment time. This gauge can be expressed in natural, cost-based and temporal units; we do not discuss here the question of the relation between them, because it is very complex and comprehensive. TMS is the sum of a multitude of specific indices, called "sphere indices", which are discussed below.
Second, sphere indices are based on the expression of the four PIOT resources. The people resource is designated with the index "P"; the information resource with the index "I"; the organisation resource with the index "O"; the things resource with the index "T." Because each resource gets reproduced by a relevant sphere to be used in all the four spheres, it is differentiated by SIOT spheres, each of which gets an index number: 1, 2, 3, 4. The indices denoting PIOT resources' sphere differentiation are called sphere indices. They are designated by numbers and letters, e.g.: P1, I21, O341, T4123, etc. So, sphere indices are specific statistical indices of a sociological class, denoting different states and intervals of SST's variable constants through PIOT resources' differentiated indices.
The major form of existence for sphere indices is not separate indices, although they are not entirely absent, but their interlinked clusters in the form of matrices. The sphere indices' basic, initial matrix, denoting the distribution of 4 resources by 4 spheres - totalling 4x4 - looks like this:
P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4, where P is population, and P1, P2, P3, P4 - their sphere classes
I = I1 + I2 + I3 + I4, where I is information, and I1, I2, I3, I4 - its clusters
O = O1 + O2 + O3 + O4, where O is organisations, and O1, O2, O3, O4 - their blocks
T = T1 + T2 + T3 + T4, where T is things, material goods, and T1, T2, T3, T4 - their groups
The matrix's lines denote the appropriate spheres' "outputs," i.e. production in them of appropriate products, while the columns denote appropriate spheres' "inputs," a utilisation of appropriate resources in them. Let us explain. The P line indices denote reproduction of the entire population in the 1st, social sphere, while the index numbers by the letter P designate the classes of people reproduced for appropriate spheres: P1 - for social, P2 - for informational, P3 - for organisational, P4 - for technical. (These are sphere classes of the population: humanitarian, informational, organisational, material, engaged in appropriate spheres of reproduction; they are explored below.) The I line indices denote reproduction of all information in the 2nd, informational sphere, while the index numbers by the "I" designates the clusters of information reproduced for appropriate spheres from the 1st to the 4th. The same applies to the other indices' lines.
Third, based on the basic matrix, a hierarchical system of matrices is created totaling 4У1/4, 4У1, 4У4, 4У16, 4У64, 4У256, etc. The depth of this system (the number of levels) is limited only by pragmatic considerations and technical possibilities.
Fourth, quantitative changes in the three constants - processes, structures, states - are denoted with PIOT resources' sphere indices. The basic matrix forms the foundation for the matrices of the indices of processes of production, distribution, exchange, consumption, and aspects thereof: growth, increase, growth rate, efficiency, productivity, etc. The basic matrix forms the foundation for the matrices of indices of structures (spheres, branches of economy, regions, countries), and aspects thereof: intersphere, interbranch, interregional balances, proportions, growth rate, etc. The basic matrix forms the foundation for the matrices of the indices of the social world's (its parts') developmental states and its aspects: harmony/disharmony, balance/imbalance, stability/instability, progress/regress, cyclicity/rhythm, etc. For each of the four spheres, intersphere balances are presented as the "output/expenditures" tables in four quadrants.
Fifth, each sphere index is formed through summation/aggregation of the appropriate active statistical indices: industrial and regional, economic and social, national and international. Experts' evaluations make up for an absence or limitedness of active indices. So, tetrar macrosociological statistics does not cancel traditional economic statistics, but supplements it and is built over it. Sphere indices integrate and develop the international statistical systems indices, first of all those of the National Accountancy System (NAS) and "Statistical Package for the Social Sciences" (SPSS). The sphere statistical indices system produces qualitatively new substantive information about social resources, processes, structures, states. precisely sociological information, as the most comprehensive information about them. This kind of information - sociological, or to put it more precisely, sociology-statistical, opens up qualitatively new opportunities for the development of both social thinking and information technologies.
Tetrar macrostatistics includes several algorithms for sphere indices formation and transformation. The set of algorithms is distilled down to four blocks.
First block. A system of algorithms for the selection of operative indices subsets, necessary for the formation of each sphere/sociological index of any level, from the individual to branch, country, world. It is "Algorithm 1" block.
Second block. A system of algorithms for the aggregation and formation, out of operative indices subsets, of sphere indices. It is "Algorithm 2" block.
Third block. A system of algorithms for the calculation of sphere indices, their matrices, balances, and other models. It is "Algorithm 3" block. This algorithm's calculations/transformations results are denoted with sphere indices. It is the first output of the results of calculations of sphere indices, their matrices and balances.
Fourth block. A system of algorithms of sphere indices for conversion into operative ones (industrial, regional, national, etc.). This block, "Algorithm 4," is the opposite of Algorithm 2. The result of sphere indices calculation is presented in operative indices. It is the second output of sphere indices calculations.
Examples of sphere indices matrices and their numerous uses over 20 years are listed in the appropriate listing in the Appendix. The sphere indices matrix for Russia in 1991 and 1996 is provided in our 1999 book. one of the book's fragments, on Russia's sphere classes, is quoted below. Sphere, sociological statistics reflects a specific, sphere, or aggregated, discreteness of the social world. This statistics constitutes the product of TetraSociology, its exclusive feature.