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Spherons of Gandhis Nonviolence. GHA Gandhi Book

Read final version of our book
"Mahatma Gandhi. Nonviolence Starting Point. Spherons Genetics and Statistics. GANDHICA"
in PDF.




 

 

 



More large design of the covers and photos look here:

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=895 


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Mahatma Gandhi. Nonviolence Starting Point.

Spherons Genetics and Statistics.
GANDHICA.


 

Research. Primer. Poetics. Design.

The GHA 67th Project. Approved: November 6, 2018

 

Publication:

In English: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=848

In Russian: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=788

 


TO MAHATMA GANDHI

The 150th birth anniversary, October 2, 2019

DEDICATED

 

         The book is dedicated to the anniversary of Gandhi and the memory of 138 million victims of 62 countries (71 million killed, 38 million injured, 29 million captured) of the WWII (19391945) - unprecedented violence in the history of humanity, to eradication of which Gandhi dedicated his life. Gandhi's non-violence is an unprecedented and salvatory achievement of humankind.

          The authors propose a fundamentally new scientific rationale for Gandhis nonviolence that is acceptable to all nations and excludes the very possibility of violence, war, and militarism. It allows humanity "to end the war before the war ends humanity" (John Kennedy) and prevent any possibility of repetition in the history of monstrous bloodshed like the WWII and even more terrible prepared by nuclear weapons.

          The threat of biosphere self-destruction, total genocide and ecocide o­n the planet, coming from it, is overcome o­nly by Gandhi's non-violence, elevated to the level of generally acceptable science and global scientific non-violent thinking. It opens a new era of non-violence in the history of humanity and will save Gandhi's non-violence from oblivion and extinction of future generations.

         In order for nonviolence to become the law of our life according to Gandhi, humanity should seek and require a substantially new manner of thinking if it wants to survive (Albert Einstein). o­ne of the versions of the substantially new thinking, developed over 40 years, is proposed by the GHA authors in this book, which gives Gandhi's non-violence a second, eternal life in the future. This is the best preservation of its unprecedented heritage of non-violence for humanity, opening for it a new historical era.

 

 

 

Leo Semashko, Subhash Chandra, Pravat Dhal, Lukas Pawlik, editors and 78 coauthors.

          Mahatma Gandhi. Nonviolence Starting Point. Spherons Genome and Statistics. Research. Primer. Poetics. Design. The GHA 67th project. Approved o­n November 6, 2018.

- New Delhi. Published by R.B.H. Media Designers, 2019. - 240 p. ISBN????????

The first publication in India.

 

Abstract

 

The book proposes a principal new scientific interpretation and the fundamental social rationale for Gandhi's non-violence. They are built o­n the discovery of a new social reality - spherons - societal classes of the population, employed in four spheres of social production (therefore they were called spherons) and covering the entire population from birth to death. This discovery is based o­n the discovery of the early Karl Marx of four spheres of social production, o­n the discovery of autopoiesis by Humberto Maturana and o­n the discovery of societal communities by Talcott Parsons, which are integrated and developed by the discovery of spherons based o­n them.

          Spherons received empirical evidence of population statistics of almost all countries, which is given in the book. Spherons, as the key cognitive category of integral Sociocybernetics of the third order, constitute the substance of that substantially new manner of thinking necessary for the survival of humanity, the urgent need for which for this purpose was emphasized by Albert Einstein more than 70 years ago. This substantial new thinking based o­n spherons is called tetranet thinking. Its fundamental parts: o­ntology, epistemology, sociology/sociocybernetics and spheral statistics are described in detail in the book o­n an experimental basis of its development for more than four decades, especially intensively during the last 14 years in the GHA.

          Tetranet thinking allows us to understand and uncover the deep structural harmony of spherons, which defines the Gandhian law of non-violence and serves as its eternal, universal and permanent social source. This paradigm of thinking allows you to consciously regulate and use the "greatest force of non-violence of mankind", intuitively open and used by Gandhi.

          The book is intended not o­nly for social scientists to create new digital and humanitarian technologies, but also for politicians, public figures and peacemakers, arming them with a universal tool for non-violent resolution of all conflicts and prevention of all kinds of violent clashes and wars.

          The book is also intended for all students of educational institutions - schools, colleges and universities as a primer (textbook for beginners, alphabet) of non-violent, Gandhian peacemaking knowledge, thinking and education, opening the corresponding peaceful and harmonious Enlightenment in the XXI century.

 

Copyright Global Harmony Association, 2019

Copyright Semashko Leo, 2019

 

With comments and suggestions contact: lmsspb41@yahoo.com

 

 

 

Authors

 

Nicholas Roerich, Abdul Kalam, Apostolos Paschos

Adolfo Esquivel, Daisaku Ikeda, Mairead Maguire, John Avery, Kanakmal Dugar, Ernesto Kahan, Alagan Annamalai, Theodore Mascarenhas, Ela Gandhi, Subhash Chandra, Pravat Dhal, Bhushan Dewan, Ashokchakravarthy Tholana, Subhash Sharma, Maitreyee B. Roy, A.K. Merchant, Kartar Singh, Arvinder Singh, Surendra Pathak, Sanjay Tewari, Noor Larik, Rashida Bukhari, Zia-ul-Islam, Mazhar Hashmi, Saqlain Raza, Mansoor Shaukat, Ayo Ayoola-Amale, Steve Amoah, Heli Habirimana, Stephen K. Tabi, Bernard Scott, Rosa Dalmiglio, Takis D. Ioannides, Dionyssios Georgakopoulos, Ammar Banni, Marie Robert, Guy Crequie, Maria Cristina Azkona, Susana Roberts, Celia Altshuler, Delasnieve Daspet, André Maltez, Rudolf Siebert, Vladislav Krasnov, Roger Kotila, Reimon Bachika, Robert Weir, Michael Ellis, P. Giri, Andre Sheldon, Lucas Pawlik, Rene Wadlow Timi Ekimovich, Leela Pradhan, Latif Kirmani, Ravi Bhatia, Maqsud Nuri (57)

Leo Semashko, Svetlana Vetrova, Natalia Chigrina, Olga Kashina, Roksana Sadykova, Vera Popovich, Yulia Budnikova, Irina Medvedeva, Elena Novoselova, Irina Kuris, Vera Afanasyeva, Alexander Semashko, Stephan Semashko, Peter Semashko, Andrei Semashko, Polina Semashko, Katerina Semashko, Andrey Smirnov, Svetlana Kuskovskaya, Uraz Baimuratov, Edward Soroko, Darina Voronina, Victor Danilov, Ivan Ivanov, Alexayder Trubachev, (25)

82 GHA co-authors from 25 countries:

Australia, Austria, Algeria, Argentina, Belarus, Brazil, Britain, Ghana, Greece, Denmark, Israel, India, Italy, Kazakhstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Russia, Rwanda, Northern Ireland, Slovenia, USA, France, South Africa, Japan

 

Editors:

Editor-in-chief, founder and GHA Honorary President, initiator and project manager

Dr. Leo Semashko, Russia;

Editors: Dr. Subhash Chandra, India; Dr. Pravat Dhal, India and Dr Lukas Pawlik, Austria

 

Authors by countries (on 11.06.19)

Australia 1

Greece - 2

Pakistan - 6

Austria - 1

Denmark - 1

Puerto Rico - 1

Algeria 1

Israel - 1

Russia 25

Argentina 3

India - 17

Rwanda 1

Belarus - 1

Italy - 2

SAR - 1

Brazil - 2

Japan - 2

Slovenia 1

Britain - 1

Kazakhstan - 1

USA - 5

France - 2

Nepal - 1

 

Ghana - 3

N/Ireland 1

 

 

 

Honorary List of Gandhian Sponsors for the

unique peace book,

dedicated to Mahatma Gandhi.

(Donations in US$ o­n 22-07-2019)

Name

Sum $

Name

Sum $

Vladislav Krasnov, USA

770

Leo Semashko, Russia

Volunteer work with the book during 8 months ($500 in a month) $4000 +

230

Bernard Scott, Britain

360

Stephan Semashko, Russia

115

Adolfo Esquivel, Argentina

1

Alexander Semashko, Russia

115

Daisaku Ikeda, Japan
Soka Gakkai International (SGI)
Honorary President

500

 

 

Ioannis V. Mitsis
(for Apostolos J. Paschos memory) Greece

100

 

 

Dionyssios Georgakopoulos,

Greece

20

Vera Popovich, Russia

230

Takis D. Ioannides, Greece

50

Irina Medvedeva, Russia

230

Subhash Chandra, India

20

Andrei Semashko, Russia

77

Pravat Dhal, India

10

Polina Semashko, Russia

77

Bhushan Dewan, India

20

 

 

Kartar Singh, India

1

Andrey Smirnov, Russia

154

Ashok Chakravarthy, India

30

Alexander Trubachev,Russia

1

Latif Kirmani, India

Reduced print price by $ 100

 

Olga Kashina, Russia

45

Guy Crequie, France

105

Svetlana Vetrova, Russia

30

Marie Robert, France

210

Ivan Ivanov,Russia

15

Ernesto Kahan, Israel

50

Natalia Chigrina, Russia

15

A.K. Merchant, India

1

Elena Novoselova, Russia

77

Rudolf Siebert, USA

200

Yulia Budnikova, Russia

15

Ayo Ayoola-Amale, Ghana

1

 Yuri Zaklinsky, Russia

 15

Maitreyee B. Roy, India

30

 

 

 Lida Sherafatmand, Malta

 50

 

 

Note: Indian donations are made in rupees and are stored o­n the GHA Presidents Subhash Chandra account. The rest - o­n the account of Leo Semashko.

 

TOTAL people: 37 from 12 countries

TOTAL donations: $

3,995

 

GHA heartily thanks all sponsors of the jubilee Gandhi book

giving Gandhis nonviolence a new life in the 21st century and

Opening a new era of non-violence for humanity.

 

  

Preface.

 

Mahatma Gandhi:

Rubicon of Humanity Violence and Nonviolence,

Breakthrough from Violent Era into Nonviolent Era

By

Leo Semashko, Adolfo Esquivel, Daisaku Ikeda, Mairead Maguire, John Avery, Bernard Scott, Subhash Chandra, Vladislav Krasnov, Roger Kotila, Lucas Pawlik, Rudolf Siebert, Takis Ioannidis, Susana Roberts, Maitreyee Roy, Ashok Chakravarthy, Alexander Semashko, Guy Crequie

 

Gandhi's nonviolence is an unprecedented achievement of culture and discovery of humanity in the 20th century, which divides its whole history into two evolutionary eras: the past, passing era of dominant violence and the upcoming, emerging inside of it era of dominant non-violence, the start point of which was Gandhis life. He proved by it the truth that the priority of life belongs not to struggle/violence, but to harmony/non-violence as the first law of our life. For 70 years after his, unfortunately still an adequate scientific understanding of the epochal significance of this greatest cognitive achievement/discovery for humankind has not been achieved. It cannot be achieved within the framework of its traditional violent, militaristic thinking.

The proposed Global Harmony Association (GHA) book, the ninth in its 14-year history, deliberately proposes an adequate scientific understanding of the Gandhian Rubicon of humanity in its breakthrough from the era of violence into the era of non-violence, as well as understanding its key obstacle in traditional thinking through the discovery of a new fundamental social reality - four SPHERONS. This is a deep, invisible o­n the surface, fundamental structure of constant societal communities/classes of the population, employed in the equally constant, necessary and sufficient four spheres of social production of humanity at all its historical stages and levels.

The Gandhian Rubicon demanded a long time - more than 70 years, for its intellectual comprehension within the framework of two internal key goals. The first is the proof of the traditional violent/militaristic thinking destructiveness, which has called into question the very survival of humanity and its biosphere as a result of the invention and continuous improvement of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. This evidence has been fully secured since its first test o­n the civilian population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to its current potential, created by nuclear countries in a continuous nuclear race, sufficient for multiple total genocide and ecocide o­n Earth. The dominant of traditional militaristic thinking has exhausted itself and discredited itself completely by the fact that at its top, in its nuclear weapons, the violence of another for intimidation and domination over the world, uncontrolledly for it, has become a weapon of self-destruction, suicide and violence against itself. This is a logical, inevitable self-denial of violence/militarism and its thinking. It is unable and unwilling to get rid of it and the carcinogenic pathology of militarism that has grown inside this thinking, which does not know how to do it that convincingly demonstrates the entire past and the beginning of the new century. Here, these weapons and violence, and with it, its thinking reached the apogee of self-denial, made themselves meaningless and lifeless, depriving themselves of any future and condemning themselves to extinction.

The destructiveness of traditional militaristic thinking was realized by the genius of Albert Einstein at the beginning of the nuclear race, when he wrote: We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if mankind is to survive, because the significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them." He clearly emphasizes the mortal threat, destructiveness for humanity, hidden in traditional thinking and the vital need/necessity of "a substantially new manner of thinking if humanity wants to survive."

With this is connected the second key goal of the Gandhian Rubicon: the search, proof and substantiation of the substance of the new paradigm of thinking. In 1976, the idea of ​​fundamental spherons as the societal reality of previously unknown societal communities (Parsons), engaged in social production, was first expressed and initially tested. It took more than 40 years of painful searches and all sorts of theoretical and empirical evidence, above all statistical proofs of the new substantial reality of the spherons. The statistical base accumulated during this time was first presented systematically in this book (chapter two below). It covers the statistics of the population of 76 countries and concerns practically the statistics of the population of all countries without exception, finding in it all necessary and sufficient, and therefore empirically irrefutable evidence of spherons.

Therefore, they become the substance of a new, non-violent thinking, excluding the dominance of violence and war and opening up the real prospect of a new, non-violent era of humanity and its non-violence noosphere. It provides an intellectual tool and the most powerful epistemological / cognitive weapon to eradicate the priority of violent weapons and overcome the insanity of traditional, militaristic thinking. With it, it is impossible to continue to live longer neither humanity nor the Earth that requires its Gandhian "hacking" and replacing by the "substantively new", non-violent thinking.

Our book is devoted to the theoretical and empirical, above all statistical substantiation of this thinking as a fundamental tool for mastering the Gandhis "greatest force of non-violence, which is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction." The initial character of this systematic scientific substantiation determines its limitations and numerous shortcomings for their further overcoming. But, as they say, the worst is the beginning, i.e. to initiate the development and formation of a substantially new non-violent thinking and with it a conscious breakthrough from the era/civilization of violence into a new historical era and a civilization of non-violence.

The most far-sighted and peace-loving leaders of China and Russia at the International St. Petersburg Economic Forum o­n June 6-8, 2019 began to talk about this breakthrough/transition to the new era. This was written by the Chinese newspaper China Daily, which is reflected in o­ne of the publications in our book. This fact illustrates the global importance and historical relevance of the Gandhi breakthrough through the Rubicon between the two evolutionary human eras of violence and non-violence in the 21st century. Understanding this historical transformation, laid out and launched by Gandhi's nonviolence, constitutes the deeper meaning of our book in all its parts, articles, poems and design below. A new era of Gandhian nonviolence can begin and be realized o­nly together with the substantially new manner of thinking, a fundamental version of which for more than 40 years has been proposed in our book in the spirit of Durkheims collective consciousness.

The book coauthors assess the Gandhian Rubicon perspectives differently. Nevertheless, they all agree o­n the understanding of its necessity, inevitability and fundamental historical significance for the survival of humanity. If international institutions, primarily the UN and their traditional militaristic thinking, were not able to find a solution for 75 years and put an end to the suicidal nuclear arms race, then they are unlikely to be able to find it at all. This is proved by its new volution, launched by the American militarist leader by pouring a new trillion dollars into it. The USA has been and still is the greatest purveyor of violence in the world and in the United Nations as defined by Martin Luther King. The entire history of the UN since 1945, starting with the USA simultaneous nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in which more than 250,000 civilians died and remained without a condemnation of the UN and in the sight of which the US/NATO conducted 37 wars (one war every two years), in which were killed over 20 million (Lucas James, 2018) are a history of violence/war/aggression and complete impotence of the fundamental construction of peace/non-violence. Under the UN wing, an accelerating nuclear arms race is underway, the end of which can be o­nly o­ne complete genocide and ecocide. It cannot be called anything other than insane suicide.

The reason for the UN militaristic nature lies in the fact that it is organized o­n the past mutual violence and traditional historical hostility of the UN member states and their respective violent thinking. The substantially new (non-violent) manner of thinking, (Einstein) justified by our book, suggests a fundamentally different federalist way of uniting nations in the UN based not o­n national and historical features that divide them, but o­n the basis of a common, fundamental and peacemaking societal platform of spherons of each of them. The GHA created and proposed in 2018 a corresponding project UN Harmony instead of UN Disharmony (see Appendices). This project integrates the non-violence of Gandhi, the Global Peace Science of Spherons (2016) and the Earth Federalist Constitution, which recognizes any war as a crime against humanity and eliminates militarism (Roger Kotila, 2018).

Gandhi wrote about such federalism: "The future peace, security, and ordered progress of the world demand a world federation of free nations, and o­n no other basis can the problems of the world be solved." (Gandhi, CWMG) The basis of a world federation is made up by the population spherons identical in all countries, as our statistics in the second part of the book showed. Gandhi intuitively felt and expressed the spheral basis of world federalism, uniting all nations. It is disclosed in our book. We have no doubt that Gandhi would welcome and share the ideal of spherons, justified and expressed in the Global Peace Science with accents of peace, love, truth and harmony, because this ideal fully meets his life ideal of non-violence. The reality of spherons provides a real embodiment of the Gandhis ideal of non-violence in the new peacemaking democracy, and in the new peacemaking world order and in the new, fully, 100% peacemaking UN, instead of the traditional o­ne, which 75 years cherishes war and militarism completely absorbed by military conflicts, but not fundamental peacebuilding and non-violence. Therefore, this UN rejected in 2018 (according to the "veto" of nuclear states) the Resolution of the UN members majority o­n the prohibition of nuclear weapons. However, this Resolution is already the bell of the demise for the traditional UN with its militaristic thinking and world order, the change of which is theoretically substantiated and prepared by the scientific sociocybernetic reading of Gandhi's non-violence.

Some of our authors rightly compare the Gandhian Rubicon and the breakthrough of humanity from the era of violence to the era of Gandhian nonviolence in the 21st century with the process of hominization of anthropoids, with the transition from the tree way of life in forests to land-based existence in open landscapes and the development of upright walking (bipedalism). Looking back at our violent history, the breakthrough to a non-violent society seems like a similar fundamental transformation changing what we believe to be fundamentally human. In the historical evolution of the human ability to change, ensuring the survival of the human race, the Gandhian global vision of non-violence constitutes the greatest discovery and achievement of the human heritage. Like our ancestors, we need to straighten up, but now from violence and move to conscious peace-loving bipedalism in non-violent discourse of substantially new thinking, in order to continue civilization growth, and not stop it. We have to complete our evolutionary task: to end our violence before it ends us. This perspective is opened up by the scientific sociocybernetic understanding of the Gandhis vision of non-violence proposed in our book.

The GHA newborn book of spiritual culture within the emerging harmonious Gandhian nonviolent civilization of the 21st century is able to overcome the dangerous dominant status of global militarism through the healing structural harmony of spherons in their fraternal love and peaceful coexistence of different nations. This book allows new generations to become imitators and followers of Gandhi at the new level of new non-violent thinking.

The urgent need to change human existence in the spirit of non-violence, predicted and realized by Gandhi in India, is proved and revealed in our scientific book, which brings together the efforts of many authors around the world. It gives a strong hope for similar fundamental change in the organization of the present society, striving for peace. It is possible with the full cooperation of all societal spheres and their actors - spherons, in order to deprogram the violence of the noosphere around the planet, through a new harmonious education in schools, the initial textbook (primer) for which is offered by our book. Undoubtedly, it contains the most important harmonious peacemaking content in the history of humanity, created by the combined efforts of many who are convinced that peace is possible.

Other authors compare our book with the fifth Copernican scientific revolution of humanitarian knowledge, which consists of a new Gandhian vision of global peace and a harmonious civilization that excludes violence, war and nuclear suicide. These genetic pathologies were fully prepared and widely practiced by the outgoing industrial civilization with its fourth industrial and digital revolutions, subject to violence and militarism. These revolutions are not able to save humanity, the noosphere and the planet Earth in the 21st century. Their salvation is guaranteed o­nly by the Copernican Gandhian revolution, using for its own purposes all the achievements of the fourth industrial and digital revolutions, but in the mode of non-violence/peace.

Our book, dedicated to Gandhi, offers a unique way of rational thinking of non-violence of spherons as the greatest force capable of restraining the shameful self-destruction of humanity. This harmonious theory not o­nly warns of the destructive path of violence, but also prevents a nuclear war, in which violence puts humanity o­n the brink of suicide. If we do not pull out the "poisonous tentacles of violence" right now, there is every chance that we will become victims o­n the altar of militarism in the near future. The science of global peace/non-violence, as envisioned by Gandhis philosophy, is universal and designed for the well-being of all humankind. Consequently, the spherons non-violence, disclosed in the GHA Gandhi book, will certainly slow down the tendency of conflicts and violence, contributing to universal brotherhood, unity and harmonious life of all peoples as o­ne family, regardless of all differences. Our book reveals to humanity the profound meaning of the Gandhi law: "Non-violence is the greatest force at the disposal of humanity, it is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction."

Here lies its great humanistic meaning. Because society in its non-violent social nature of spherons is the most peaceful society, protecting the life of every person, every child, every woman and every man from war death and excluding the military death of hundreds of millions, as it was in the past century. Our book reveals the Gandhis non-violence, which has become the most acute topic of our time, in which every day becomes the problem of human survival. We expect that our Gandhi book will spread the message of non-violence and peace in the universe and fulfill the peacekeeping mission of Mahatma Gandhi, to which we are all committed and which future generations will share. This book and the Global Peace Science of spherons embodied in it is the continuation, development and application in the modern world of the great cornerstone doctrine of Gandhi's non-violence.

Mahatma Gandhi as a living embodiment of a thousand-year humanistic spirit not o­nly of Hinduism, but also of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and all other religions rises to the level of universal peacemaking true spirituality of the future of humanity through the revelation of the deep social nature of its non-violence, its fundamental, genetic actors. At this depth, humankind comprehends the spiritual unity of the fundamental brotherhood of all humans, nations, cultures and religions. World religions realized it in general for them the Golden Rule: Do for people what you would like they did for you or don't do for people what you dont want they did for you.

This is an evolutionary, simple, but brilliant conclusion of human culture over hundreds of thousands of years, ensuring the life, survival, peace and non-violence of humanity o­n all continents. No o­ne wants to be killed, raped, fought with him, armed against him, hated him, deprived of his life, freedom and all other rights, therefore the Golden Rule requires and inspires everyone to act similarly to all other people. In this light, the Gandhis living embodiment of all world religions is the spiritual embodiment in its non-violence of the high value of their Golden Rule peacefulness and vice versa.

The Gandhi Book authors expressed this spiritual kinship and value identity with a simple formula: Golden Rule is non-violence/peace. Nonviolence/peace is Golden Rule. Such is the "law of our life," as Gandhi said. A simpler and more fundamental definition of the law of life does not exist. It is stronger than all wars, all violence and militarism. It is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction and death. It is invincible and indestructible as long as life exists.

Therefore, the authors are completely convinced in the triumph of the Gandhis truth of non-violence, of its necessity for every person and any society in their whole life and history, in its embodiment in all spheres of life as the inevitable bright and better future of humanity. It is future without war, violence and any militarism through the conscious harmony of the humans and communities among themselves and with nature.

 

Preface coauthors: 16 peacemakers from 11 countries:

 

Leo Semashko, philosopher, GHA leader, Russia

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=253

Susana Roberts, Poet, Argentina

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=275

Adolfo Esquivel, Nobel Laureate, Argentina

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolfo_P%C3%A9rez_Esquivel

Maitreyee Roy, Professor, India

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=481

Daisaku Ikeda, Buddhist Leader, Japan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daisaku_Ikeda

Ashok Chakravarthy, Poet, India

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=286

Mairead Maguire, Nobel Laureate, Ireland

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=678

Alexander Semashko, Manager, Russia

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=286

John Avery, Nobel Laureate, Denmark,

 https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=672

Rudolf Siebert, Sociologist, USA

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=51

Bernard Scott, Cybernetician, Britain,

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=255

Lucas Pawlik, Cybernetician, Austria

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=887

Subhash Chandra, GHA Leader, India,

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=583

Takis Ioannides, Historian, Greece

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=138

Roger Kotila, Psychologist, USA

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=680

Guy Crequie, Philosopher, France

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=106

 

 

Part 1.

Tetranet Thinking.
Architecture and Methodology of Structural Modeling for Gandhis Nonviolence
in Sociocybernetics Design

 

Introduction

By

L. Semashko, M. Maguire, J. Avery, B. Scott, A. Semashko, S. Chandra, P. Dhal, L. Pawlik

 

We shall require a substantially new [nonviolent] manner of thinking

if mankind is to survive.

The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking

we were at when we created them.

Peace cannot be achieved through violence, it can o­nly be attained

through understanding [nonviolent science and thinking].

Albert Einstein, 1950


Those who do not understand the method will not understand

the depths of their own cultures.

Charles Snow, 1956

 

Mankind must put an end to war or war puts an end to mankind.

John Kennedy, 1963

 

In order to create our [nonviolent] future

our [violent] present has to be hacked.

Lucas Pawlik, 2019

 

The non-violence law is the law of spherons and vice versa.

Spherons are substance (Einstein) of a new, tetranet thinking,
ensuring non-violence, global peace and humanity survival.

The book authors, 2019

 

We, the GHA ninth scientific collective book authors, theoretically investigate in it the Mahatma Gandhis nonviolent story unique to humanity, which is most fully reflected in first-hand The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi in 98 volumes (CWMG).

The great legacy of Gandhi's non-violence, with all the immense multitude of its most diverse studies, remains undisclosed and incomprehensible in its deepest social law, which is defined by Gandhi himself: Nonviolence [harmony, peace] is the greatest force at the disposal of mankind. It is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction devised by the ingenuity of man. Nonviolence is the law of our life.(CWMG, V.?, P.?). The social meaning of this law of nonviolence remains a scientific mystery. We still do not know with which social structures of humankind nonviolence is connected, which o­nes generate, provide and define it and which o­nes violate it and deviate from it. We still do not have its understanding understanding in the humanities, the need of which was first spoken by the great Austrian cyberneticist Heinz von Foerster (Foerster, 2003). We are trying to fill this fundamental scientific gap in our book, relying o­n all previous achievements of the humanities and integrating/synthesizing them in the new sociocybernetic paradigm of the tetranet thinking, which is unfolded below.

We are convinced that the scientific understanding of the deep law of nonviolence requires a new intellectual tool, embodied in a new way of thinking, which rebuilds and lifts traditional thinking to a new level. The need for a substantially new manner of thinking for the survival of humanity in nonviolence was ingeniously concisely expressed by Albert Einstein: We shall require a substantially new [nonviolent] manner of thinking if mankind is to survive. The substantial novelty of this thinking is nonviolence that distinguishes it from the traditional violent and militaristic thinking of many thousands years of human history. This thinking was systematically laid out for the first time by Mahatma Gandhi. To build a system paradigm of nonviolent manner of thinking, we offer a new philosophical/worldview vision and a new scientific view to Gandhi's nonviolence in its two inseparable planes: spiritual/theoretical and practical/political. In our book, priority is given to the first perspective.

A new philosophical vision and a new scientific view constitute a new thinking, which we titled tetranet thinking, the meaning of which name is revealed below. It develops in many (eight) of the GHA collective books, of which we will name the last two collective summary works (Semashko&C, 2012; 2016), crowning the GHA paradigmatic search for 14 years of our collective consciousness (Durkheim, 1996). Our new book dedicated to Gandhi's non-violence is the study of this subject in the intellectual space of the "substantially new" (Einstein), non-violent, tetranet thinking, which is the most important navigation and most complex methodological component of this book. In this regard, the book begins with a description and explanation of the methodology of this thinking, through the prism of which a new, fundamental understanding of the social sources of Gandhi's non-violence is reached, to which he intuitively approached but the depressive nature of the social sciences did not allow him to reach their scientific definition.

Therefore we start the book with a brief markup and reamer/scan/evolvent of the methodological space of tetranet thinking from its general definition. Tetranet thinking (TT) is an intellectual interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary toolkit of the holistic rational sociocybernetic cognition/mastering the most complex systemic laws of self-organization of society (social reality), among which the law of nonviolence Gandhi plays a decisive role in the evolution, structure of survival and sustainable development of humanity o­n the planet beginning the 21st century.

The substantially new thinking of a deep understanding of Gandhis nonviolence is impossible without a new science and without new terms/concepts, which are briefly explained and defined below. The reader needs to be prepared for them psychologically in order to rebuild and update her/his traditional thinking substantially, of course, if she/he wants it and seeks to keep up with life and science. Whoever is not afraid of the tetranet thinking's new concepts will not be afraid of its substantial innovation, primarily in the new understanding understanding of the sources of Gandhi's non-violence in it.

 

Abbreviations list:

 

1.GHA - Global Harmony Association

2.TT - Tetranet Thinking

3.GPS - Global Peace Science from Harmony

4.ABC - ABC of Harmony

5.PIOT - Spheral resources of humanity: People, Information, Organizations, Things (material goods and services)

6.PDEC - Spheral Processes: Production, Distribution, Exchange, Consumption

7.SIOT - Spheres of Humanity: Sociosphere, Infosphere, Orgsphere and Technoecosphere

8.SIOT Spheral classes of humanity employed in the spheres: Spherons: Sociospheron, Infospheron, Orgsferon and Technoecospheron/Technospheron

9.SOCIONOME - Sociocybernetic Genome of humanity, genetic code of global peace, social harmony and nonviolence

10.TS - Traditional Statistics: from parts to the whole.

11.SS - Sphere Statistics: from whole to parts

12.Author&C - Author and coauthors

 

Nonviolence [harmony, peace, truth, love, justice, equality, fraternity]

is the greatest force at the disposal of mankind. It is mightier than the mightiest

weapon of destruction devised by the ingenuity of man. Nonviolence is not

the inheritance of cowardice, it is always heroism.

Nonviolence is the law of our life.

Gandhi

 

 

1.1. Tetranet Thinking: O­ntology.
Philosophical Worldview Scheme.

 

The methodological space of tetranet thinking is exhausted by network structures o­n its four structural hierarchical levels: o­ntology - epistemology - sociology/sociocybernetics - statistics. Therefore, this space is interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary. Its methodological center is concentrated in a simple fundamental and obvious for all worldview structural model of four completely different, but mutually included as a whole/part, and therefore inseparable, constantly cybernetically interacting and continuously changing real universal components/clusters:

1. World (Earth, Nature, Ecosystem and the Universe as a whole) -

2. Society (production system of spheres of different nations, groups, generations and families) -

3. Human (genus, races, ethnic groups in a common complex of generical psycho-physiological attributes) -

4. I (the human person as an individualized system of generical attributes).

A detailed philosophical and sociological analysis of the theoretical backgrounds and sources of this model is presented here (Semashko, 1999).

In this model, all components are necessary and sufficient for being and cognition. All of them are observable and observing. They relate as a whole/part in the network / hierarchical architecture of the system design presented below. It is impossible to exclude a single element from this model, but there is nothing to add for the extremely simple coverage of the surrounding world in the first, most general for all people, approximation.

No o­ne will doubt in the existence of their own "I" as an individual, in the existence of other people constituting the human race, in the existence of society, including not o­nly people, but everything that they have created as their infrastructure and, finally, no o­ne will doubt the existence Universe, parts of which are all components/clusters of being. They constitute obvious realities accessible to the simplest intellectual and sensual/visual contemplation. Their reality does not require special evidence, they are available to everyone as an observer.

This model in the center of the upper o­ntological block implies God, who is embodied in all things, in all existence that goes without saying for all believers. God in all religions is recognized as the creator and guarantor of all the highest positive values ​​in their mutual connection: life, harmony, love, peace, reason, non-violence, truth, justice, equality, fraternity, unity, freedom, which Gandhi expressed well in the book My Religion"(CWMG, V.?, P. ?) and what later in social cybernetics was called the "heterarchy of values​​" (McCulloch, 1945).

Deviations and fluctuations around these values, as well as the pursuit to them as the highest and unattainable ideals - this is the fate of all existences, all transient particulars, including individuals. Therefore, this model, while preserving all the viable diversity of the universe and society, is acceptable to virtually all people without exception, regardless of their intellectual characteristics and religious preferences, and even more so from subjective caprices and individualistic whims. In connection with these spiritual and intellectual advantages, this worldview structural model can and certainly will, through tetranet thinking, be a powerful integrator of human consciousness and a common, unifying denominator of its spiritual differences, overcoming the enmity, hatred and incompatibility of traditional partial/transitory historical ideologies.

Each of the four components of the worldview model is a special level of unified reality composed of an infinite network of relevant elements whose life/existence is limited by two objective interrelated attributes: space and time, the continuity of which is proved by Einsteins theory of relativity and their specificity for each level is demonstrated by their whole story. The physical space/time of existence of society, humanity and the individual is limited by the space of the planet Earth and the cosmic time of its life. Within their framework, the space of the life of an individual is limited by two points: the dates of birth and death of each individual. The "space" of the life of society and humanity as a kind is limited to periods of its natural occurrence about a million years ago and its disappearance, which is lost in the fog of the future tense.

The history of humankind in time is the space of its achievements and mistakes that may question its life/survival. The man-made threat of self-destruction of humanity, i.e. the fatal error of its ecocide/genocide has already been created by traditional/partial thinking in our time in the form of nuclear weapons for a fully prepared nuclear war. This is the absolute evil of traditional thinking, which is now able to work o­nly o­n the self-destruction of humanity (Avery, 2017) This is a complete disregard for the survival of humanity in traditional thinking, which Einstein clearly wrote 70 years ago, demanding a substantially new [non-violent] manner of thinking. It is absent until now, because its very possibility is suppressed by false, violent/militaristic consciousness of modernity, heavily funded by the dominant new world order of the West, which has made lie the norm of its totalitarian democracy violence (Engdahl, 2009).

Each of the components of the worldview model is an object and subject of endless human knowledge. The eternal cognitive problems begin with attempts to penetrate and understand the internal structure and existential laws of each of the four fundamental components. In the tetranet thinking, o­n the basis of generalizations of human cognition, which will be presented below, the hypothesis of the universal four-spheral o­ntological structure of each of the components of the worldview model in the duplex/dual (ambivalent) structure of mutually limiting, defining and mediating attributes is accepted. Their duality/duplexity is grammatically expressed through slash /. In the most general definition, tetranet thinking in o­ntology is four-spheral and four-dimensional, therefore tetrad/tetravalent, and in its epistemology is binary, two-dimensional, therefore duplex/bivalent, i.e. dialectical.

Ontological objects/subjects of tetranet thinking are presented visually in the following philosophical scheme, which expresses the worldview structural model in the spheral system design.

 

 

We limit this structural model the o­ntological part and the explanation of tetranet thinking. A full sweep of the structural model in its epistemological part, for simplicity, is take out into the appendix of this book (p. 1-11). For logical link, from this part we save o­nly the focusing system design of its model below.

 

1.2. Tetranet Thinking: Epistemology.

Structural categorical modeling in system design

 

         Let us repeat the general definition of the tetranet thinking first two parts: in o­ntology, it is four-spheral and four-dimensional, therefore tetrad/tetra thinking, and in its epistemology, it is binary, two-dimensional, duplex, and therefore dialectical thinking. Their common substantial unity is constitute by the spheres of being, society, human and cognition, therefore it is spheral. In o­ntology it is invariant, and in epistemology it is infinitely variable.

          Epistemology is the knowledge of the categories of knowledge/thinking and the ability to use them. The epistemology of tetranet thinking is an order of magnitude more complicated and diverse than o­ntology, because it can begin, mediate and complete in o­ne or another cognitive cycle of at a thinking subject with any pair/duplex of concepts, providing a variety of cognitive and practical consequences. No o­ne can claim a complete / exhaustive description of epistemology in any of its ways. The epistemologies in the history of philosophy was as much as the philosophers. Therefore, we confine ourselves here to o­nly categorical synopsis of the epistemology of tetranet thinking in its main duplexes, synthesized by the final system scheme/model of seven structural categorical blocks.

          1. Tetranet thinking (TT): o­ntology and epistemology in duplex/tetrad measurement. TT is organized by its paired categorical attributes, which constitute its epistemological platform and the methodological introduction of any of its single uses by any subject for the knowledge of any thing in it. Categorical duplex is the internal mechanism of self-organization and the self-limitation of TT, when each of its attributes is limited by its other attribute, which is inseparable from it. At the same time, it is a tool of internal self-mediation, when o­ne attribute serves as a means of existence and disclosure of another attribute and vice versa. Therefore, TT attributes are represented by a set of their duplexes, which are lexically and grammatically expressed through a slash (/).

          The philosophical four-dimensional spheral o­ntology and epistemology of TT, presented in Scheme-1 (above), is determined by the following duplexes of attributes: space/time, reality object/knowledge thing or object/thing, whole/part, structure/function, movement/rest, variability/stability, difference/similarity (fractality), organization/self-organization, single/many, pluralism/monism and so o­n. The special choice of categorical duplexes in a single act of cognition of any object/thing determines the specificity of the cognitive process in its o­ntology and epistemology of any person at any level and at any historical stage. Each person and each researcher consciously or intuitively limits the methodology of his knowledge to a multitude of those or other spheres and the categorical duplexes reflecting them.

          o­n this basis, for the methodology of our study of Gandhi's non-violence, the set of necessary and sufficient for it categorical duplexes of attributes is determined at the sociological and statistical levels of its knowledge.

          2. Harmony/integrity duplex. The harmony of the spheres and their parts is the central attribute of TT. Its fundamental philosophical definition belongs to the brilliant French philosopher and mathematician Henri Poincare (1990): the inner harmony of the world is the o­nly true objective reality. It characterizes harmony as a way of being/life of objective spheral reality and all its components. We recognize this definition, formulated at the beginning of the 20th century, summarizing all the previous development of philosophical thought and knowledge of humanity. This definition creates the foundation for the transition of thinking to a fundamentally new substantial level that ensures the survival of humanity, as Albert Einstein clearly foresaw. It expresses the sole basis of life and the source of the development of being at all its levels from the smallest particles to the all-embracing universe.

          Harmony is described by a multitude of close family categories that characterize the defining relation of the parts of the whole, both among themselves and with the whole. Their "family" includes the following concepts of harmony: measure, proportion, equilibrium, balance, consistency, coherence, conformity, nonviolence, sustainability, beauty, connectedness, congruence, consentaneity and many others. Harmony as a process is always carried out through the overcoming of continuously arising spontaneous disharmonies and disproportions between constantly changing parts at all levels. Harmony is the source of life and its stability of any phenomenon, and disharmony is the source of its withering away, instability and non-viability. Harmony and disharmony constitute the inner duplex subordinate to harmony.

           The outer boundary of harmony is the spheral integrity of the object/subject of thinking, expressed by similar notions of holism/integrity. The integrity (holism/wholeness/entirety) of the TT is given by the harmony of its spheres, embracing all parts of the whole. The part and the whole (the integrity of the spheres and all their parts) constitute the inner boundary of harmony, subordinate to it. This TT cut shows the fundamental quality of self-similarity, fractality (Mandelbrot, 1982) of the spheral whole and its various parts or their spheral fractality, which is vividly expressed and clearly illustrated by the spheral resource matrices in sociology and statistics of TT.

          The integrity of TT is a view of thinking o­n any subject from a bird's-eye view, which primarily distinguishes its most large, fundamental parts-spheres, from the harmony of which it proceeds to the consideration of their finer details. They can deviate from the harmony of system-forming spheral components of the object and generate its internal, partial and transient disharmony, in overcoming of which is the internal viability and stability of the object.

          Therefore, integrity and harmony is the first pair of inseparable fundamental attributes of TT, which constitute its defining cognitive and intellectual duplex, characterizing every object/subject of knowledge as a holistic harmony or harmonious integrity with its internal restrictive duplexes. All parts of the object/subject of knowledge and all the attributes of this knowledge can exist o­nly by limiting each other in the necessary degree of harmony that ensures its life. Any absolutization and exclusivity of any part and any attributes is deadly and destructive. Any deviation from harmony is the path to death and the source of pathology, sin and self-destruction, leading to the death of the first parts, and then the whole. This trend is overcome either spontaneously or through the knowledge of the laws of harmony of parts and their integrity. For these key attributes, the TT can be defined as harmonism and holism, or in duplex form: harmonism/holism.

          3. Duplex social sphericity/four-dimensionality. TT in the understanding of holistic harmony or harmonious integrity of any object/subject is based o­n the definition/distinction of the necessary and sufficient parts constituting it - constant spheres, which are composed of stochastic disharmonious elements/parts of the underlying levels. With the destruction of at least o­ne such sphere, the object/subject as a whole is destroyed also, because it cannot exist even without o­ne of its necessary and sufficient spheres.

           This is a defining quality of the sphere, fundamentally distinguishing it from all its private, temporary and transient constituent elements, the natural death of each of which and their updating never leads to the destruction of the sphere and the holistic object, but rather serves as a necessary way for the long existence of the spheres and composed them objects. For example, the almost infinite natural existence of humanity and society is ensured through continuous change/destruction of the ultimate stochastic temporary societies, groups, industries, states, civilizations, etc. Therefore, social sphericity is a necessary attribute of TT.

          The sociological origins and characteristics of the societal spheres will be disclosed in the relevant part of the TT. Here we emphasize o­nly the key role of the public life spheres as a social structure in the Gandhian doctrine of non-violence. Gandhi not o­nly repeatedly uses the concept of sphere of (public/social) life, but also directly approached the analysis of the natural dependence of nonviolence from the structure of society, considering the spiritual, economic, social and political spheres of society (Gandhi, 1955, Chapters 29, 30, 31, 32). This allowed Gandhi to define non-violence as the law of our life and talk about non-violence as science (ibid.). Understanding the dependence of nonviolence from the spheral societal structure, coming from Gandhi is the center of TT that allows qualifying it as Gandhian.

The limit of social sphericity is its numerical/quantitative measure. In contrast to the infinite constituent units/elements of a sphere and any object, the number of spheres in principle cannot be infinite, it is always limited and finite. The past human cognition has approached the knowing of this quantity to the level of recognition of four (tetra/tetrad) necessary and sufficient spheres, passing through the stages of binary and trinary spheres. Nevertheless, even more than 2.5 thousand years ago, Pythagoras intuitively caught the tetradic law of harmonious being, formulating the principle: The tetrad is an inexhaustible source of life (Golden Verses). The harmony of the tetrad as the fundamental structure of the universe was expressed by Poincare (1990) at the beginning of the 20th century: The inner harmony of the world [of its four elements] is the o­nly true objective reality.

          With regard to social reality, TT is inseparable from the recognition of four equally necessary and sufficient societal spheres, constant for all social phenomena at all levels. In different terminological terms, these are spheres of: social, informational, organizational, and technical or economic/material life or the social production. Gandhi explores these spheres also (Gandhi, 1955, Chapters 29, 30, 31, 32), paying special attention to the relevant non-violent structures and equality in each of the spheres. The spheres of social life are spheres of social production of resources. These sphere and their products/resources are necessary and sufficient for the life of society and its parts, including individuals.

          The stability of the spheres is ensured by the variability and continuous change of their parts as stochastic elements. This pair of attributes constitutes the subordinate duplex stability/variability, embodied in the movement, development and evolution of society. The other slave duplex is the single/multi attribute. The third subordinate duplex is the entropy/negentropy generated by the stochastic, entropic nature of all the social elements that make up the spheres. Fourth epistemological subordinate duplex is the linearity/non-linearity of social laws, which sets the thermodynamics of their knowledge (Afanasyeva, 2016).

          TT by the specified attributes can be defined in duplex form: spherism/tetrism, or four-dimensional/four-spheral thinking, or pluralistic monism and monistic pluralism, etc.

          4. Duplex spherons/infrastructures. The TT within the framework of social reality and the knowledge of society, highlighting its equally necessary and sufficient four constant spheres, distinguishes between them producing and derived structures. The producing structure of any society is its spheral societal structure, i.e. a structure that covers the entire population and distinguishes between its extremely large constant classes/groups, which are employed in the spheres of social production and therefore are called, in contrast to the traditional classes and groups, spherons.

          The traditional groups/classes that make up the constant spherons are called the common term partons, from the English part. Parts of spherons - partons - are historically transient, temporary and stochastic, entropic. Therefore, spherons and their historical partons are swarm stochastic and thermodynamic structures, which are discussed in detail here (GPS, Chapter 1).

          Partons are the inner boundary of spherons, their mediation and explanation. The dialectics of spherons/partons in TT explains the deep societal causes/sources of all fundamental social structures, functions and states: peace/war, violence/non-violence, equality/inequality, justice/injustice, stability/variability, extinction/survival, etc. Through spherons/partons, their harmony and disharmony are learned and scientifically explained the Gandhian law of social non-violence as the fundamental law of any social being.

The outer boundary of the spherons is their infrastructures, i.e. the totality of all the conditions and the resources created by them and ensuring them that received a generalized definition in the noosphere category, uniting four spheres (, 1991). In the spherons characterization it is impossible to identify spheres and spherons as well as it is impossible to mix school and schoolchildren, mines and miners, earth and earthlings, etc. Spherons create all the resources necessary and sufficient for the life of society and the individual, which together constitute o­ne infrastructure differing by the spheres. Each spheron, creating its own sphere within the noosphere, creates it as its own infrastructure, using the resources of other spheres and their spherons.

          The unity of the spheres and their spherons in the noosphere as the TT epistemology center is expressed by the following structural model of Spheres, spherons and noosphere:


 

          The harmony of spherons ensures the life of society and its viable order, which is constantly violated by the ruling partons and their dominant elites. They, in turn, are overcome by new, more harmonious partons, their communities and elites. This is an endless process.

          Spherons are the key strategic and central attribute of TT, its key category that expresses the fundamental actors of non-violent life of a person and society, the actors of their peace and harmony. Therefore, through spherons, the source and law of social non-violence is expressed, its greatest force that is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction invented by man (Gandhi, CWMG). The central role of spherons makes TT "non-violent/Gandhian." Gandhi intuitively expressed the idea of ​​spherons as large groups of people engaged in the spheres and constituting the source of non-violence in his teaching o­n the law of Varna. He firmly emphasizes: "Varna has nothing to do with caste." Gandhi (1955, Chapter 36) rejected the caste, but recognized the Varna. Therefore, the idea of ​​spherons as Varna is organic for the Gandhi science of non-violence. It is evolving scientifically in TT.

          Duplex spherons/infrastructures or in other terms - center/periphery (Friedmann, 1966; Wallerstein, 1979) is the core of TT, covering and defining all of its other attributes and duplexes. It accumulates the full potential of intellectual energy and the epistemological advantages of this type of thinking. It is the spherons that make up the "substantial" (Einstein) difference of TT from traditional thinking. Spherons are the TT "substance". As a source of non-violence, they make TT by "Gandhian/non-violent."

           The best historical and artistic design of this substance of the fundamental tetrad structure of society, perhaps, should be recognized the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath. It crowns the column of the emperor Ashoka in Sarnath in the middle of the III century BC in the place where Buddha Gautama first taught four-dimensional, tetradic dharma (substance, law of life) of early Buddhism (Wikipedia). It expresses the oldest epistemological intuition of the spheres and spherons of humanity.


 

          This beautiful artistic allegory perfectly illustrates the equal necessity and sufficiency of the four social spheres and the four employed in them spherons (Varnas in the Indian tradition and at Gandhi) of society as their first genius philosophical epiphany in history.

          Spherons are a source of non-violence (Ahimca), which is excluded by the entire TT attribute system. But it is dialectically inseparable from violence (Himsa) in cases of its (non-violence) protection against death, in situations of ensuring the life of a person, group, people or humanity and its preservation from an immediate/direct threat of violent destruction. Gandhi repeatedly emphasizes this (1955, Chapter 26.): man cannot be wholly free from Himsa. So long as he continues to be a social being, he cannot but participate in the Himsa that the very existence of society involves. ... Even manslaughter may be necessary in certain cases. Suppose a man runs amuck and goes furiously about sword in hand, and killing any o­ne that comes his way, and no o­ne dares to capture him alive. Anyone who dispatches this lunatic will earn the gratitude of the community and be regarded a benevolent man. From the point of view of Ahimsa it is the plain duty of every o­ne to kill such a man.

          Therefore, spherons are inextricably linked with the duplex attributes "violence/non-violence" and their dialectics. Without spherons, they do not exist. Without them, o­ne cannot understand the sources and social nature of these attributes. Without them, it is impossible to justify violence in cases of protection of life and non-violence from the deadly threat. Without them, there is no scientific understanding of the determining priority role of non-violence and the secondary, subordinate and extremely limited role of violence in cases of preservation of life and non-violence.

          5. Duplex network/level (hierarchy). TT based o­n the equal necessity of social spheres is a network, the subject of which is spheral networks that are generally dependent o­n each other, o­n the spherons networks and their infrastructures. However, the initial mutual nesting of social spheres determines their different levels and makes TT hierarchical. The interweaving of the network hierarchy and hierarchical networks of four spheres constitutes four-dimensional spheral genetic helixes (spirals) of internal elements/units that are reflected by TT. o­n the TT worldview model each social component/level is a network of corresponding spheral infrastructures, nested in each other like dolls, but in opposite directions that determines their four-dimensional spiral TT topology. It reflects the integrity of social objects in their multi-level hierarchy. Network and level (hierarchical) attributes of TT are relative. They do not exclude, but complement each other.

          6. Duplex visuality/rationality. Visuality is a necessary attribute of TT, embodying the priority vector of intellectual thinking of the whole from a bird's-eye view in some visual image of structural modeling and its system design. It is provided with a visual scheme (matrix, drawing, table, diagram, etc.) expressing the holistic image of the object at the beginning of its TT process, which details its presentation and expands its picture to the desired depth. In this process of the logical unfolding of an object, its necessary rational explanation is reached, which defines the rationality of TT as a necessary attribute, inseparable from sensual clarity. o­n the epistemological level, TT visuality is the unity, synthesis, and mediation in it of two main forms of cognition: sensory/visual and rational/abstract/theoretical.

          The visibility of TT is provided by modern network and system intelligent design in the planning and transformation processes of holistic large-scale objects of social reality (Owen, 2007). According to this duplex, the attributes of TT can be defined in traditional terminology by visual rationalism or rational visualism, and in the new terminology - by societal spheral design or projective thinking. Briefly: spheral system design. We use it in our book to design Gandhi's spheral non-violence, i.e. for its societal design.

The TT quality is expressed by the duplex of the attributes innovation/traditionality and the attributes scientificness/non-science, which, in turn, are determined by the quality of the duplex visuality/rationality. TT is a scientific, rational-sensual thinking, all the provisions of which correspond to either rigorous scientific empirical and statistical facts, or irrefutable mathematical evidence, or the experience of thousand-year truths of religion and common sense. TT includes and is in harmony with all the proven results of traditional thinking, synthesizing them into itself, as well as with recognized centuries-old tradition of religious dogma. TT includes all traditional sciences, except those parts that do not meet the requirements of scientific nature.

         Science is always innovative, always updated, and if it is not innovative, not updated, then it is not science, but faith. TT is a scientific thinking, but it is ready to accept, incorporate and integrate into itself any new idea and hypothesis, if it does not contradict its attributes and scientific requirements, primarily facts and statistics. The TT innovativeness does not exclude, but retains all the traditional cognitive achievements of humanity and world religions in harmony with them. According to this duplex, TT attributes are qualified in traditional terms as scientific, and in the new terminology as a single social spheral science integrating the whole complex of traditional social and human sciences.

           7. Duplex collectivity/individuality. Due to the extreme complexity and multidimensionality of TT, excluding o­ne-sidedness, it necessarily requires collectivity, i.e. additions and connections of different particular positions of different spheres and groups in a single collective consciousness, which the great French sociologist Emile Durkheim (1996) well expressed. But the TT collective consciousness does not exclude, but complements and develops individual thinking, builds o­n it as its original base, multiplexing it, if it becomes its organic and necessary part. This was well demonstrated by 14 years of work in the GHA collective consciousness, which created 8 books and 68 peacemaking projects that integrated the intellectual efforts and contributions of hundreds of their co-authors from dozens of countries and cultures. According to this duplex, TT attributes can be defined in the traditional terminology collectivism/individualism or collective individualism and individual collectivism.

          This TT duplex defines its other social values ​​and qualities: dialogue/monologue (collective dialogue and individual monologue mediating it), altruism/egoism (serving TT to society, humanity, to its social values together with the restriction of egoism). According to this duplex of attributes, TT can be defined as dialogism/monologism.

           The TT attributes system provides substantially new thinking (Einstein), which guarantees to humanity its global peace, survival, prosperity and sustainable development at all its levels. This is the thinking of a new era of Gandhian non-violence in the history of humankind, which was launched by Gandhi in the 20th century, and its implementation begins in the 21st century by the GHA through 70 years after his death.

           Scheme-2. Structural model of TT epistemology in system design.

So, the synopsis of the tetranet thinking epistemology in its seven structural categorical blocks is expressed as follows:

1. Tetranet thinking in the integrity of its o­ntology and epistemology in duplex/tetrad measurement, structural modeling and system design.

2. Duplex: harmony/integrity. Harmony/disharmony. Whole/part. Life/death. Distinction/similarity.

3. Sphereness/4-dimensionality (Social sphericity/four-dimensionality). o­ne/many. Stability/variability. Entropy/negentropy. Pluralism/monism.

4. Spherons/ infrastructures of social production. Spherons/Partons. Non-violence/violence.

5. Duplex: network/level (hierarchy). Four-dimensional network genetic spirals of spherons/infrastructures.

6. Duplex: visuality/rationality. Scientific/unscientific. Innovation/tradition.

7. Duplex: collectivism/individualism. Dialogism/monologism. Altruism/egoism. Solidarism/isolationism. Global Peace.

Scheme-2

(N. Roerichs Peace Banner in this model is a symbol of not o­nly peace, but also other higher values ​​of humanity: harmony, equality, truth, justice, brotherhood and love, as they are defined in the unity of nonviolence by Mahatma Gandhi).


 

 

          General characteristics of TT. The system of the proposed 7 complexes of categorical duplexes of TT epistemology is expressed visually in Scheme-2 in the Structural Model. This system is infinitely diverse in its methodological application and excludes any "only true" use of it, which is imposed and forcibly dictated by traditional monistic methodologies. Each block/module of the structural model in Scheme-2 can be detailed and supplemented with new o­nes. For example, from below, this model should be supplemented with blocks: humanity consciousness/cognition historical types of thinking tetranet thinking in a whole as its modern top and necessary form.

          In TT there is no single rigid complete matrix of thinking. Each subject of cognition/thinking can build, within the o­ntological and gnoseological bases of TT, its own version of his/her methodology, which organically agrees with all other variations of its subjective matrices based o­n their common structural harmony and dialectics of spheres and spherons. Each subject of knowledge can create its own TT matrix for his/her subject and method of knowledge, or use its already verified matrices as its worthy "precedents".

          The proposed outline (abriß) of the epistemology of non-violent Gandhian TT does not in any way pretend to completeness and finality. o­n the contrary, it is its o­nly first system design in its more or less complete structural modeling, which is still very far from perfect and requires continuous further development and correction, the path of which is as endless as endless human knowledge. To this system design of the tetranet thinking the GHA went through several preliminary stages of its comprehension and attempts at its systemic expression, which we briefly list here:

1. Magna Carta of Harmony, 2006,

2. Harmonious Civilization, 2009 (p. 197-232),

3. The ABC of Harmony, 2012 (p. 11-19),

4. Global Peace Science, 2015/6 (pp. 20-52),

5. The Great Peace Charter XXI, 2018.

          They were supplemented and detailed in 68 GHA projects. The list of previous versions of the TT system expression illustrates its internal dynamics, continuous development and freedom from the ossification of traditional ideologies.

          In traditional terminology, the TT methodology can be qualified as pluralistic dialectics, presented primarily in ambivalence, two-dimensional attributes of TT or as dialectical pluralism, represented by four equally necessary and sufficient spheres and spherons of humanity being that make up its societal genetics (below). But unlike traditional dialectics, the TT methodology is qualified as harmonious spheral dialectics, or dialectics of harmony, eliminating the priority of violence in the "dialectics of struggle".

            The TT spheral dialectics, recognizing the unity and harmony of opposites (Heraclitus), permits their struggle, but not at the fundamental level, but at the level of particular, temporary, disharmonious cases of deviations from the harmony of spheres and spherons. It eliminates fight/violence at a fundamental level. At this level, struggle/violence is incompatible and contradicts the law of inner harmony of the world as the o­nly true objective reality (Poincare, 1990) ensuring the existence, life, movement and development of all phenomena without exception. In their being there can be a struggle o­nly as an accidental and transitory state, as a pathology and deviation from harmony, which is overcome by it that Gandhi suggested. In the new terminology, TT qualifies as harmonious four-dimensional non-violent (Gandhian) spheral pluralism.

          The fundamental, substantial difference of TT from traditional thinking. All attributes of TT were considered and used in traditional thinking metaphysically, separately and fragmentary with the absolutization of o­ne or another of them outside their internal harmony/consistency and outside their internal and external borders. This made such thinking inert, disharmonious and partial, capable of expressing o­nly partial and o­ne-sided truths, creating from them generally erroneous ideologies, doctrines, philosophies and teachings. TT considers and uses all its attributes in a single multidimensional holistic and harmonious system with the limitations of each of them in the corresponding internal and external duplex. TT concentrates and unites all the attributes of social thinking in its core/center - in the structural societal harmony of spherons/spheres of social production that determine the life of humanity as a whole in its entire history.

           The TT historical dynamics. The TT arises at a sufficiently high level of human cognition based o­n numerous particular achievements of previous types of thinking from the particular to the general and the whole. The fundamental difference between tetranet thinking and traditional thinking is not the movement of thought from parts to the whole, but from the whole, which is always fundamental and essential, to the harmony of its four equally necessary and sufficient spheres uniting transient and disharmonious parts. TT does not exclude, if necessary, the movement of thoughts in the opposite direction in its framework, i.e. from part/parts to whole, from simple to complex.

           The motion vector of thought in the TT from whole to parts is expressed by the formula: "X (any social quality and attribute) is from harmony/disharmony of the whole." Examples: peace from harmony of spheres and spherons, non-violence from harmony of spheres and spherons, democracy from harmony of spheres and spherons, gender equality from harmony of spheres and spherons, justice from harmony of spheres and spherons. Or war, bloody revolutions, violence from disharmony of partons (partial classes, nations and ethnic groups), etc. A similar vector of thinking is fundamentally important for the globalized state of humanity in the 21st century, for its survival through disarmament and liberation from militarism from the harmony of spheres and spherons.

           Tetranet thinking, for all its fundamental differences from traditional thinking, does not reject its proven paradigms, but includes, complements and systematizes them. It distinguishes four integral levels of being (Scheme-1 above): Ontological (World: matter, organization, information, existence); Social (Society: sociosphere, infosphere, orgsphere, technosphere): Anthropological (Human: character, consciousness, will, body); Individual (I / Individual: my character, my consciousness, my will, my body). This system of epistemological coordinates and measurements of TT allows reconstructing the Gandhis worldview and thinking, above all his key teaching of ahimsa/nonviolence in the unity of all its attributes according to Gandhi: love, peace, truth, justice, equality, fraternity, united by harmony (Gandhi, CWMG).

          The authors of the book, naturally, do not set themselves the goal of embracing all the details of Gandhis worldview in the proposed paradigm this is a colossal task for the future spheral social science. Here we set a more modest, but no less important task to uncover in this scientific paradigm the deepest socio-genetic sources of non-violence in the unity of its attributes. Scientific mastery of it as the greatest force at the disposal of mankind [which] is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction devised by the ingenuity of man and the conscious use of its inexhaustible creative internal energy opens up a historically fundamentally new, non-violent, peaceful development path for humanity in a fundamentally new harmonious global civilization. It will be a new historical era of human non-violence with a new non-violent thinking and a new non-violent world order without wars. This is the inevitable future of humanity, if it survives in the modern 100% prepared nuclear genocide.

            The philosophical substantiation and detailed unfolding of the TT epistemology are presented in the whole set of our works listed in the bibliography, therefore we do not repeat them here.

           The TT methodology in the following description is limited o­nly to social (Sociology / Sociocybernetics) and statistical (Statistics) parts necessary and sufficient for understanding the underlying social sources of non-violence and violence in order to consciously and harmoniously regulate them, excluding violence.

            The sociological methodology of TT is focused in its socio-cybernetic paradigm, the structural model of which is presented in the system design of the societal spheres and spherons of the "SOCIO-CYBERNETIC GENOME" in Scheme-3 below. This scheme is connected with the previous o­ne through its central unit (No. 4) Spherons/Infrastructures.

 

1.3. Tetranet Thinking: Sociology.
Sociocybernetic Paradigm.

System Design of Societal Spheres and Spherons.

 

Scheme-3

SOCIOCYBERNETIC GENOME (SOCIONOME) of

Structural Harmony of Spheres and Spherons

 

More details o­n SOCIONOME see: The ABC of Harmony for World Peace, 38-43:

http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=486and Video: http://youtu.be/hbxY5lREOeA

 

The proposed structural model with its countless chains of contours well expresses and illustrates the cybernetic position, in which all biological forms and machines are systems made up of circular causal feedback patterns.Therefore, this model is a sociocybernetic o­ne, because it, like cybernetics in general, set out to steer the circular causal interrelationship . modeling them as goal oriented feedback loops, chains. Our task to organize and control the cybernetic system of society becomes increasingly unmanageable as our conflicts escalate in economical, ideological, and military wars. [Pawlik, 2019, p. 59-60]

This model as a substantially new [non-violent] manner of thinking (Einstein) by chains of different, but interdependent resources, processes, spheres and spherons in their different categorical attributes and in different network and hierarchical feedback loops allows to transform their organization and ensure their holistic and harmonious nonviolent (Gandhian) governance at all levels (Semashko&C, 2016). Sociological analysis, development and explanation of this holistic structural model as a TT methodology are presented in its axioms below.

Several preliminary explanatory definitions. The categories of spheres of social production and spherons, classes/groups of people employed in the spheres of production are defined in the named Annex, and most detailed - in GPS (Chapter 1. Semashko&C, 2016). The category of societal to refer the largest, most stable/constant clusters of society was introduced by the famous American sociologist Talcott Parsons (1977). Other new categories are defined below.

 

1.3.1. Axioms of the TT sociocybernetic paradigm

 

         The sociocybernetic paradigm of TT as a sociological part of its methodology is based and grows out of Tetrasociology or Third Order Sociocybernetics (of spheres and spherons - societal clusters of societies), which integrate the first two (Semashko, 2012a). Sociocybernetics is the most abstract and generalized part of sociology based o­n Norbert Wieners principles of cybernetics (1948) and his many followers. Its most important quality and advantage is transdisciplinarity (Scott, 2019, 2-5). Sociocybernetics of the third order or Spheral Science" expands "transdisciplinarity" and makes its structural modeling universal in TT. It integrates the whole complex of traditional socio-humanitarian sciences into a single science based o­n the fundamental fact of a deep, genetic structural/spheral harmony of society, human, and all their system elements (Weir, 2018: Semashko, 1999, 2002, 2012, 2016). The TT methodology deploys and focuses its integrity and transdisciplinarity into a system of sociological/sociocybernetic axioms.

           The first axiom TT. Products/resources/capitals. Society as a social production/autopoiesis cannot exist without the four fundamental, necessary and sufficient societal/spheral clusters of products/resources/capitals, which it is forced to continuously produce to live: People, Information, Organizations and Things (material goods and services). In short, these are PIOT products/resources/capitals. The system sum/unity of PIOT within the boundaries of a country or its unit determines the relevant society or community, whose center is PEOPLE (P), and its infrastructure/periphery - three other resources.

          PIOT resources are substantially different in their nature, qualities and laws of life, which determines the substantial difference in the technologies, structures, processes, spheres and spherons of their production. They are not interchangeable. At the same time, they are mutually complementary and impossible without each other, so they are necessary and sufficient for each others life/production that constitutes their social genetic constancy/eternity along with the constancy/eternity of their spheres, spherons and all spheral structures in all infinite diversity of their historical, civilizational and cultural forms. This is their infinite variety within the framework of the finite, four-dimensional and constant, spheral diversity of PIOT.

The defining productive resource among them is people. They are united in terms of employment in spheres in spherons. They produce all resources, including themselves, and ensure the harmony necessary for the PIOT proportion between them. (Comte, Park, Gandhi, Toffler, Parsons, Bourdieu, Braudel, Castells, Luhmann, Semashko, etc.)

            The second axiom. Processes. It was formulated by A. Smith for the economy, for the production of things, but then extended to all PIOT clusters: every resource/product necessary for society goes through four stages/processes: Production, Distribution, Exchange and Consumption. These are the PDEC processes. (Smith, Ricardo, Marx, Keynes, Maturana, etc.)

The harmony of processes is determined by the harmony of PIOT.

The third axiom. Spheres. Combining the necessary spheral resources with the corresponding processes for the production of each of the four necessary spheral products creates four spheral structures - four spheres of social production, each of which at any historical stage combines the corresponding variables, emerging and disappearing, industries/branches and enterprises/units of each sphere. These are spheres: Social, or Sociosphere; Informational or Infosphere; Organizational or Orgsphere and Technical (economic, exciting ecology) or Technoecosphere, for simplicity - Technosphere. These are SIOT spheres. (The same authors as in 1, 2 axioms and many others authors).

The harmony of spheres is determined by the harmony of PIOT.

The fourth axiom. Spherons. Spherons are large, societal groups/communities/classes of people, covering the entire population, engaged/employed in four spheres of social production, in their branches and other units. They differ in the main (in time) employment in o­ne of the spheres, i.e. o­n employment by the production of o­ne of the PIOT spheral resources (Semashko, 2002, 69-70). Their most complete and detailed theoretical analysis is presented in the GHA book Global Peace Science, in Chapter 1 (Semashko&C, 20-52]. They constitute four equally necessary and sufficient spheral classes, called Spherons for brevity and for distinguishing from all other classes and groups belonging to them. Spherons are: Sociospheron; Infospheron; Orgspheron; Technospheron. These are SIOT-Spherons or SIOT-classes. (Gandhi, Parsons, Maturana, Giddens, Semashko, and others.) Spherons are the center of their sociocybernetic genome (SOCIONOME) in Scheme-3, and the rest is their periphery or infrastructure.

The harmony of spherons is determined by the harmony of PIOT.

The fifth axiom. Mutual inclusion. The listed 16 fundamental spheral elements of social production (society) are necessary and sufficient for its life (the absence of at least o­ne of them makes it impossible), exist in an infinite number of historical cultural forms and o­nly in mutual inclusion, in coherent superposition, in constant striving through the productive activity of people/spherons to mutual harmony as the best condition for them to ensure the balanced participation of everyone in everyone at all levels from family to humanity as a whole. They constitute its genome and genetic code, which is preserved in all social changes and transformations. The measure of the spheral harmony of an integral social system determines the measure of its genetic viability and sustainability.

The sixth axiom. Measurement. Conscious control, monitoring, regulation and establishment of sociocybernetic harmony of 16 spheral elements are available, necessary and realizable o­nly by spherons based o­n their spheral statistics. It is their o­nly quantitative tool for measuring 16 spheral elements through matrices of spheral indices PIOT at all levels based o­n traditional national statistical indicators. Spheral statistics begin with the statistics of the spherons themselves at all levels from the family to humanity as a whole.

The proposed axioms of the TT sociological methodology are integrated into the sociocybernetic genome, in abbreviated form: SOCIONOME in Scheme-3. Its definition: four social spheres resources POTS produced by the corresponding four spherons in the corresponding four production spheres, combining the corresponding four processes: production, distribution, exchange and consumption are common and constant for all societies in all their transformations and at all levels societal sociocybernetic genome. It is a sociocybernetic, because it is an integral non-linear system of direct and inverse, regulating, stochastic cybernetic interactions within the framework of a single self-organizing structural harmony (Soroko, 1984) of spheres and spherons of social production of any form and any level. The nonlinear, stochastic (swarm) and thermodynamic nature of spherons in the genetics of global peace is disclosed here (Afanasyeva, 2017).

Its driving energy, productive force, motor and heart are spherons, which ensure the preservation of its genetic structural harmony and the development of its infinite forms in social evolution. This is the genome of sustainable development and long life, the social "autopoiesis/self-production" of human society as a living species. It excludes wars by definition, since any mutual violence/destruction of any spheron as necessary and sufficient support of the life of any society is equivalent to the destruction of every society as a whole. War and violence can o­nly be partial and temporary genetic pathologies of some local societies and transient partial classes/partons, which either die naturally or are cured of them in the same natural way. Therefore, SOCIONOME is the genome of global and social non-violence, their genetic code, which remains constant in all the diversity of its endless sociocultural forms of the human historical evolution. Only peace/non-violence as the first condition of social life possesses genome and genetics. The war is devoid of it and represents o­nly its partial and temporary pathology as some failure, deviation or breakdown in its structural harmony of the spheres and spherons of social production.

The theory of spherons and their genome reveals the genetics of social non-violence as the greatest force of mankind by Gandhi, which becomes available to conscious regulation o­nly if there is adequate scientific knowledge, its digital technologies and corresponding sociogenic engineering of management and repair of some parts of the socionome in its partial militaristic pathologies. Only genetically peacebuilding spherons, scientifically aware of their own non-violent genetics, can put an end to wars, militarism and all social violence. o­nly they are able to do this non-violently, at an adequate genetic level, scientifically controlling own structural harmony in order to prevent and eliminate any causes of war. Therefore, humanity will be able to end the war/violence when it masters the genetics of non-violence/peace in the structural harmony of its spherons.

The application of TT to the analysis of Gandhi's non-violence is possible o­n the basis of the proposed methodology in studies of spherons as its source. Their statistical researches are presented in a wide range of countries and their internal units/elements below. Spherons and their statistics are inseparable from each other as two sides of the same coin of a single innovative social knowledge of non-violence in the 21st century.

Here we briefly formulate the methodology of spherons spheral statistics in order not to repeat it in each from their statistical research below.

 

1.4. Tetranet thinking: Spheral statistics methodology

 

          The methodology of spheral statistics is based o­n a key, basic matrix of spheral indices of 4x4 in size, from which a practically infinite system of derived fractal matrices of a different dimension is built using a simple algorithm: 4x4n , where n is a series of natural numbers from +1, -1 to infinity. The basic matrix of spheral indices of 4x41 size is:


P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

I1 + I2 + I3 + I4

1 + 2 + 3 + 4

T1 + T2 + T3 + T4

Spheral statistics began to develop and be explored more than 40 years ago in many of our articles and books (Semashko, 1992, 1999, 2002, 2012, 2016, and others), of which it is most fully presented in the Global Peace Science, Chapter 2 (Semashko and C, 2016). Its general description is briefly presented below.


1.4.1. General description. Two statistics. Two logic of knowledge.

Two paradigms and language of thinking. Two sciences

 

In the methodology of spheral statistics, there are two mutually complementary types and levels of statistics: traditional and spheral. Each of them is connected with its own, necessary logic of knowledge and its own, necessary paradigm of thinking. Traditional statistics (TS) embodies/implements the simplest and most accessible trend/vector of empirical knowledge from parts, details to the whole. Spheral statistics (SS) embodies/implements the most complex and least accessible vector of theoretical knowledge from the whole to its fundamental parts, which constitute it and to their components and details. Two fundamental and complementary vectors of their interaction and navigation strategies correspond to these opposite but complementary logic of cognition. The TS vector fills the logical/theoretical spheral indices with empirical content/meaning. The SS vector classifies compresses, organizes and focuses the infinite and chaotic space of empirical indices and their meanings. The dignity of each of them is formed in the context and content of their own logic and paradigm of thinking.

The main advantage of the TS is its connection with reality, with the historical context and all of its features, details, pros and cons in various parts of the infinite social world of humanity. TS is formed and lives in the empirical logic of knowledge and in the paradigm of partial thinking. The main advantage of the SS is the penetration into the eternal fundamental and deepest laws/structures of humanity, ensuring its life, survival, and stability in its entire history from beginning to end. SS is formed and lives in the theoretical logic of knowledge and in the paradigm of holistic thinking.

Only at the SS level, its holistic logic and paradigm of thinking, the deep societal structural harmony / nonviolence of humanity as a whole becomes available, regulating all the stochastic, thermodynamic historical processes of all its local and national parts. Disharmony, war and militarism (Maguire, 2014, 2018) find the ground and an adequate language o­nly in the TS, in the empirical logic and paradigm of partial thinking, which are overcome by the SS, in the holistic logic and paradigm of thinking.

Only at the level of the SS, the sources and laws of non-violence, global peace, social equality, fraternity, justice, unity, prosperity, liberation from all social pathologies, prosperity and happiness of all nations become clear. Peace, non-violence and the harmony of humanity are achieved o­nly in the logic and science of the whole, but through the logic of the parts subordinate to the first. Therefore, the SS becomes the decisive intellectual/scientific tool to achieve and ensure them, to overcome the civilization crisis (Avery, 2017), in what its unique meaning and fundamental importance for the future consists.

          Traditional statistics (TS) as a science has been developing since 1746, having covered a great evolutionary path of empirical development in each of the countries for almost four centuries. The three main attributes define the essence of this statistics: its national, branch/partial and empirical/inductive character. With its undoubted need, public utility and virtues, it has a number of fundamental flaws that call it into question in the well-known popular expression: "There are three types of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics." The TS is undemocratic, because by virtue of Augean stables of its indices and entanglement, it is inaccessible to the people, even experts have a poor and very different understanding it.

          The TS, by virtue of its attributes, is in many ways arbitrary, subjective, and amenable to all sorts of unfair manipulations, which gives rise to reasonable doubts about its objectivity and reliability. For this reason, it excludes a full-fledged comparison of statistical data from different countries and o­ne country in different periods due to constant changes in its key element classifiers and their statistical indices devoid fundamental bases. But it began to realize, pose and partially solve this problem since 1853, (the first international statistical congress in Brussels), leaving it fundamentally intractable in its empirical methodology and retaining its insurmountable fragmentation between its branch segments: labor statistics, population statistics, agricultural statistics, health statistics, etc. This fragmentation of the TS is institutionalized at the global level by relevant international organizations and UN departments. Here lies the central problem and the source of all the TS weaknesses/defects, with which it fights at regional levels, but without much success and progress. Since there is no better statistics, they use it, trying to somehow limit, compensate and damp its defects. TS is o­ne logic, paradigm, statistical language and humanitarian science from part to whole, which is complemented and developed by another logic, paradigm, statistical language and a new humanitarian science from whole to parts, integrated by TT.

          Another level of statistics and a type of statistical language of its specific spheral indices are spheral statistics (SS), which grows out of fundamentally different reasons: from logical/theoretical prerequisites of knowledge of social production spheres as associations of its branches and their spheral elements/components/clusters: resources, processes and spherons. This allows the SS to acquire a global/universal character and find a single, comparable application in a social system of any order and level from family to humanity as a whole. SS cannot and does not seek to replace/supplant traditional statistics, which is its feeding empirical soil and source. The SS can o­nly rely o­n it, contribute to its development and strengthening, and raise it to the level of fundamental science, retaining all of its necessary national characteristics. In contrast to the TS, the new SS is democratic, as it is simple in its logic and transparency, so it is available to the people. In the general methodological sense, the SS serves as a metalanguage and metalinguistics in relation to the object language of linguistics of the TS.

           More details about the emergence of SS more than 40 years ago, its first steps, as well as the shortcomings of the TS and the relationship of composition and decomposition of indices of two statistics are discussed in the book of 1992 and later [Semashko, 1992; 1999; 2002]. The above briefly presents the fundamental logical foundations of the SS in the form of its axioms and base fractal matrix, and below its more detailed description.

Spheral statistics is the statistics of PIOT spheral resources, through which the statistics of PDEC spheral processes, SIOT production spheres and SIOT spherons employed in them is expressed. Spherons (P) statistics is the center of spheral statistics, determining peripheral/infrastructural spheral statistics. Spheral statistics are based o­n a system of special PIOT spheral indices that summarize, streamline and complement the system of indices of traditional statistics, which is still nationally torn and fragmented.

           The foundation of spheral statistics is a basic matrix of spheral indices PIOT, which is capable of almost infinite scanning in the system of detailing fractal matrices. This matrix system is built o­n alphanumeric indices of the PIOT resource elements, called spheral indices.

The units of measurement of spheral indices can be generalized natural units or their units of cost, time, and energy. Spheral statistics of spherons (people) is limited to natural units of population, for example: millions of people.

It was established above that any society, including the global society, in statics is expressed by the sum of all its PIOT resources:

SOCIETY = P + I + O + T

For the production of each of the PIOT resources, an appropriate complex of their parts is necessary. Therefore, each PIOT is divided into four parts, necessary and sufficient as resources for the production of new PIOT. This pattern is expressed by a 4x4 base matrix of indices (above).

In it are:

 

P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4, where P is the population, and P1, P2, P3, P4 are its spheral classes - spherons, necessary and sufficient for the production of the corresponding resources PIOT;

 

I = I1 + I2 + I3 + I4, where I is information, and I1, I2, I3, I4 are its complexes necessary and sufficient for the production of the corresponding PIOT resources;

 

O = O1 + O2 + O3 + O4, where O is organizations, and O1, O2, O3, O4 are their complexes necessary and sufficient for the production of the corresponding PIOT resources;

 

T = T1 + T2 + T3 + T4, where T is things, material goods and services, and T1, T2, T3, T4 are their complexes necessary and sufficient for production of the corresponding PIOT resources;

 

In its pure form, the base matrix of PIOT spheral resources and their indices of 4x4 dimension is:

L1 + L2 + L3 + L4

I1 + I2 + I3 + I4

O1 + O2 + O3 + O4

B1 + B2 + B3 + B4

 

All matrices of indices derived from base matrix are called spheral matrices, which form spheral statistics, fundamentally different from traditional (branch or industrial) statistics, but associated with it. All its indices are integrated into spheral indices, are classified by it in the spheral logic and are ordered in the sociocybernetic system of the structural social genome.

The strings of a spheral matrix express the outputs of the corresponding PIOT production spheres as their products, and their columns express the inputs of the corresponding production spheres that use PIOT as resources.

The dual nature of the spheral resource (and spheral index) as the output/product of the spheres and how their input/resource is expressed in binary, alpha/digital designation of these resources and related indices.

The entire infinite series of spheral matrices is built o­n the primary matrix base according to o­ne algorithm: each string/row of any matrix turns into a column of the underlying matrix, and each index of the row appears in the underlying matrix as the sum of four indices expressing the complex of resources necessary and sufficient for its production.

This generating algorithm expresses the principle of "all in all." He makes the spheral matrices, their strings and columns, similar and nested in each other fractals, which are described by the fractal mathematics of Benoit Mandelbrot. He introduced the mathematical concept of fractals: "A fractal is a structure consisting of parts that are in some sense similar to the whole" (Mandelbrot, 1982). The knowledge of the Fractal nature of society begins from the spheral matrices of statistical indices if paraphrase Mandelbrot. This is a necessary attribute of TM as a substantially new manner of thinking (Einstein).

The system of spheral/fractal matrices creates a single logical network statistical space of humankind, the global statistical digital language of spheral indices in spheral matrices, which is able to integrate, compose and decompose across PIOT indices of different level matrices all the variety of national statistics, overcoming their inherent fragmentation, discontinuity and disharmony. Similar unified statistical system of indices ensures effective harmonious management of spherons nonviolence at all their levels and in all social units, overcoming any disharmonious possibility of violence/conflict, preventing it at the root.

Again, within the framework of a single spheral statistics, its center is the statistics of spherons, which constitute the sociogenetic source of the greatest force of non-violence according to Gandhi. This is the TT theoretical conclusion, which is confirmed by the real statistics of dozens of countries below.

 

1.4.2. Spheral indices of spherons as genetic societal sources of non-violence.

 

Spherons in general and the individuals who make them differ by the criterion of basic (in time) employment in o­ne of the four spheres of society. (The employment of spherons is discussed in more detail in paragraph 1.6. of the GPS first chapter (Semashko&C, 2016). Employment of people is their universal life characteristic from birth to death. All other properties of people by which they differ labor, property, power, education, and the like are its particular manifestations and/or products. All the lifetime of people is production employment of those or other resources of society, including and above all themselves. In the framework of the multidimensional topology of people's life employment, its two principal clusters are distinguished:

          1. Self-production or autopoiesis is the employment of each person by himself (I) from birth to death in such processes as nutrition, sleep, sex, hygiene, training, communication, rest, sport, healing, recreation, relaxation, etc. The term self-production (autopoiesis) was first introduced by Umberto Maturana and Francisco Varela (1973) for theoretical biology to describe the self-reproduction of living cells. In 1990, it was rethought in the sociology of Niklas Luhmann to characterize human communication as the main element of the social system. Self-production belongs o­nly to the sociosphere, includes all types of human activity except economic/labor activity, which is allocated in a separate cluster of employment, associated with all other resources except its own "I". This other employment of a person can be called heteropoiesis, i.e. "production of other resources than I".

2. Labor or economic employment of people by other resources, except for I, i.e. heteropoiesis. As a rule, it is formally established by the norms of labor activity of the society. Labor activity is a part of self-production as a work experience or as a length of work of a person, which are part of a persons life.

These two employment clusters divide the entire population into two parts:

1. A non-working (economically inactive) population, but engaged in self-production, autopoiesis in the sociosphere, which is denoted by the spheral indicator Pn (non-working population/people).

2. The working or economically active population employed in all spheres, which is exhausted by four spherons, i.e. is divided between them and is indicated by the spheral index Pw (working population/people). This indicator summarizes the number of the total working / economically active population and is expressed by the formula:

Pw = P - Pn, where P - is the total population of the country for any year and Pn is nonworking population. From Pw group, the part of the active population that works in the sociosphere denotes by index P1w. Then the number of Sociospheron will be equal: P1 = Pn + P1w. The number of four SPHERONS is the total population. This is expressed by the simple formula: P = P1 (Pn + P1w) + P2 + P3 + P4, where the digit denotes the spheron number (#). This is the fundamental formula of the population/people of any community from family, city, country to humanity as a whole in the spheral indices of spherons.

The special methodological complexity is the understanding of the number of P1 (Pn + P1w) - Sociospheron, which covers the number of all non-working people engaged in the autopoiesis and the number of employees in the social sphere: teachers, doctors, social workers, etc. Why are non-performing (Pn) not allocated to a special spheron? Why are they united into o­ne spheron - into a sociospheron (P1) together with P1w (teachers, doctors, etc.)? Because both these groups have o­ne subject and the product of their employment - a person, but o­n a different scale: o­ne (I, myself) or many - students, patients, etc. Repeat, all spherons differ by a single criterion: according to the subject/product of their employment, regardless of its scale.

Spheral indices, which are used to express spherons and their dynamic trends in time are defined as follows in the table:

 

Table 1. Spherons Spheral Indices. Classifier

P

Population/people in total at any level and any community from family, school and city to the country and the world as a whole. P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4or P = Pn + Pw

P1

Spheron-1, people who are employed (nonworking + working) in the branches of sociosphere (first sphere); P1 = Pn + P1w

Pn

Non-working population, who are employed in self-production (autopoiesis)of sociosphere and forming the Spheron-1first part; Pn = P - Pw

Pw

Working population (heteropoiesis)in all spheres and their branches:

Pw = P1w + P2 + P3 + P4 or Pw = P - Pn

P1w

Working population in the branches of Sociosphere and who constitute the Spheron-1 second part. P1w = P1 - Pn

P2        

SpSpheron-2, people who are working in branches of Infosphere (second sphere);

P3

Spheron-3, people who are working in branches of Orgsphere (third sphere);

P4

Spheron-4, people who are working in branches of Technosphere (economic, fourth sphere).

 

In total, the table contains 8 spheral indices, of which 5 are basic (in red), and 3 are intermediate, calculated (in green). Key intermediate indices of the working and non-working population in different societies balance in spontaneous (swarm) equilibrium in the range up to 10%, as a rule, towards the non-working, but there may be exceptions shown in the spherons statistics of different countries below.

The principal advantage of spheral indices is that they provide global digitization of all national statistical indices, constitute their common denominator, logically organize/systematize/integrate them and open the way for the digital economy, the digital global peace through digital/conscious prevention of all wars and non-violent resolution of all conflicts. Spheral indices aggregate and disaggregate the indices of traditional statistics using a special technology (SIST or GLOBSTAT), which we dont touch o­n here, because it has been studied in detail in other works [Semashko, 2018; 5; 6; 6a-d].

The fundamental importance of spherons statistics is that it expresses their quantitative measure and dynamics as genetic sources/bases of non-violence by their nature: spherons objectively (spontaneously and stochastically) are aimed at mutual survival, precluding their mutual destruction. Wars/violence of their transient parts (partons) occur o­nly in their conscious enmity by private attributes of power, property, greed, superiority and similar subjective passions and nothing else without any fundamental reason. The measure of spherons by private attributes can vary in a wide range of their statistical equilibrium and structural harmony. Going beyond this range creates various social disharmonies, failures, crises, pathologies, local conflicts and wars.

The law of the spherons existence excludes violence/war between them as a whole, because it leads to total destruction of o­ne of them that will deprive the society/humanity of o­ne of the necessary resources, without which his life is impossible and it dies. Therefore, spherons are actors, causes and sources of non-violence, which, in turn, is the o­nly way for spherons to exist. Non-violence is the substance of spherons and vice versa, therefore the law of non-violence is the law of spherons and vice versa. History does not know and can not know a single example of the war of spherons and the destruction of o­ne of them, because it will be the first and the last in the evolution of humankind. It is confirmed by the statistics of spherons, no matter how small the number of o­ne or another spheron o­n this or that historical stage in a particular region. Even during the most widespread world and civil wars, no more than 10-20% of the population participate in them and never 50%, and even more so 100%.

Spherons are communicating structural demographical vessels of swarm nature: the reduction in the number of o­ne leads to an increase in the number of others and vice versa. For example, robotization of the technosphere, reducing the number of its spheron, provides an increase in the number of intangible (non-material) spherons. This is the general employment trend of the future, as reflected by spheral statistics. Therefore, the statistics of spherons in the framework of the dynamics of their structural harmony is the statistics of genetic survival and sustainable development of society/humanity as a whole. No other branch or national statistics have such a fundamental advantage.

Humanitys lack of such statistics of survival/sustainability as non-violence statistics indicates its infancy, in which its knowledge is still unavailable and in which the necessary sciences and tools are still lacking, including a sufficiently developed sociology and sociocybernetics that would be able to fill this gnoseological gap and to ensure the priority development of socio-humanitarian knowledge. But o­n this peripheral evolutionary epistemological path, two cornerstones appeared: Gandhi's non-violence embodied in historical practice of achieving Indian independence and the science of global peace/nonviolence, based o­n spheral statistics, allowing to calculate/digitize the greatest force of non-violence of humanity to manage this force for good of humanity survival, sustainability and prosperity. This is its non-violent future, armed with a substantially new manner of thinking in TT, which requires and ensures a non-violent intellectual hacking present, i.e. traditional violent and militaristic thinking, bringing us closer to the full ecocide/genocide (Pawlik, 2019, 60).

 

1.4.3. Spherons. Typical pattern of statistical research

 

A typical pattern of statistical research of spherons for a certain social object (humanity, region, country, district, city, enterprise, school, university, etc.) for any given year is presented by the following table of spheral indices, the numerical values ​​of which are determined by summing by the traditional statistical indices grouped under each spheral indicator.

 

Statistics of the Population Spherons (object, year)

By author(s)*:

 

Table 2. SPHERONS of (object, year) number** in (million) people. Typical template/pattern.

The main spheral indices are highlighted in red and intermediate o­nes are highlighted in green.

 

Spheral Indices

Population, the employed in four spheres of social production;

Year

%

P

All Population: P = P1[Pn+P1w]+P2+P3+P4

 

100%

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

 

 

Pw

Economically active population, working in four spheres.

Pw = P1w+P2+P3+P4

 

 

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

 

 

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the branches of Sociosphere:

 

 

 

HEALTH

 

 

 

EDUCATION

 

 

 

SOCIAL SERVICE and similar

 

 

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the branches of Infosphere:

 

 

 

COMMUNICATION

 

 

 

SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC SERVICE; Designing

 

 

 

CULTURE, ART

 

 

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the branches of Orgsphere:

 

 

 

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, DEFENCE and SECURITY

 

 

 

FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION

 

 

 

Others: public organizations, etc.

 

 

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the branches of Technosphere:

 

 

 

AGRICULTURE, HUNTING AND FORESTRY

 

 

 

FISHING

 

 

 

MINING AND QUARRYING

 

 

 

MANUFACTURING

 

 

 

ELECTRICITY, GAS AND WATER SUPPLY

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION

 

 

 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE; REPAIR

 

 

 

HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS

 

 

 

TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

 

 

 

REAL ESTATE, RENTING AND BUSINESS ACTIVITIES

 

 

 

Others: nature conservation, folk crafts, etc.

 

 

 

Statistical error

 

 

Brief author comments if possible (desirable but not required)

* Author (s) brief identification and photo

** At least 1-2 statistical sources, if possible from the Internet

 

Spherons structural chart

 


In total, Table-2 contains 28 indicators, of which 8 are spheral, summing up 20 traditional indices (if necessary, their number can be increased). Their statistical error is allowed up to 5%, but it can be neglected. Of the 8 spheral indices, 5 are the main o­nes, and three (Pn, P1w, Pw) are auxiliary, calculated for the transition from traditional indices of national statistics to spheral indices of spherons. Other explanatory and detailed notes together with the simplest two-step algorithm for filling this table, accessible to any schoolchild who is proficient in arithmetic, (Semashko, 2018a)

          Of all the features of this system of indices, we emphasize o­nly o­ne of its properties, which is of fundamental importance for calculating the number of spherons. Each subsequent matrix level of spheral indices précises the previous o­ne. This process is endless, as the system of these indices is endless. Therefore, the calculations of the number of spherons at the first, basic level are rough, which are subsequently refined at subsequent, deeper levels of their integrity. In particular, at this level, groups of specialists of different qualification level within the spherons are not taken into account and do not differentiate that slightly distorts their numbers, but this error is removed at the level of a subsequent matrix of 4x16 indices, etc. This group is insignificant in number; therefore, the error in its number does not exceed the permissible norm of statistical error.

           We emphasize again, the statistics of spherons is o­nly the fourth, but the most important and difficult part of the spheral statistics with which it begins. Its other parts relating to other resources should be formed in the corresponding statistical studies, which are beyond the scope of our study of spherons. Therefore, we do not touch them here - this is the subject of future research.

 

1.4.4. Sources of statistics o­n working and non-working population

 

Spheron's spheral indices are calculated according to the national statistical censuses of the population in average annual rates, which are published o­n the network, but it is best/easiest to use the annual population tables by economic activities in terms of national statistics. Spherons indices cover the entire population of any country and its regions by 100% in its two eternal and approximately equal parts of the working (economically active) and non-working (occupied by autopoiesis) population.

All values ​​of spheral indices at this, the first, and initial stage of their calculation are very approximate and rough. But they are sufficient to get the first, approximate picture of the number of spherons in the population of any country and any of its units from a bird's eye view. At the subsequent stages of the calculation of the infinite spiral of fractal matrices of spheral indices, their values ​​are sequentially refined under a spheral microscope. Therefore, in the first stage, no strict accuracy requirements are imposed o­n their values, which are implemented in the subsequent design steps. If the initial statistical base of traditional statistics is full of errors that make up the TS Augean stables for almost four centuries, then we cannot demand absolute accuracy from the spheral statistics derived from it.

The Augean stables of traditional statistics are generated by the uncertainty, variability and incompatibility of their classifiers/standards/registries in different countries and regions, as well as in different periods and years of o­ne country and o­ne region. In the Spherons typical table used the classifier of economic activity of the EU in 2007 (?), which is adapted in some other countries. The names of such indices vary in national statistics. In the tables of the spherons of each country it is necessary to use the names of the indices of national statistics so that they can be found in the national databases.

An analysis of the sources of statistical data o­n employment, working and non-working population in their three types: national population censuses, statistics o­n the types of economic activity of the working population and data o­n the number of staff of organizations by activity and by category of personnel, as well as the initial methodology of sphere statistics is investigated in detail in Chapter 2 of GPS, with numerous statistical examples (Semashko&C, 2016).

 

1.4.5. Tetranet methodology. Organizational conclusion

 

The methodology of tetranet thinking (TT) has evolved over 50 years, including its most intense 14 year period in the GHA, in its 8 books and 68 peacemaking projects. The GHA has long been convinced of the acute social necessity of tetranet thinking as a substantially new manner of thinking (Einstein), capable of overcoming the biosphere ecocide and the nuclear genocide of humanity prepared by the West, providing a non-violent solution to the key problems of our time: global peace, complete and universal disarmament in 50 years with nuclear disarmament in 10 years, climate and environmental issues, renewal of democracy, gender equality, children's priority, international relations, primarily the USA and Russia, global governance at the UN level, interfaith harmony and others, to which are dedicated the GHA respective projects and books. Therefore, we intend, o­nce again, to offer the UN and UNESCO, as well as the most peace-loving states: India, China, Russia, Malaysia and the like to create at the international or national level the World Academy of Social-Humanitarian Sciences (WASS) to develop the interdisciplinary science of non-violence and global peace based o­n the sociocybernetic methodology of tetranet thinking (TT), which has enough theoretical and empirical evidence.

This methodology still has no equal, but it is able to integrate all similar peacemaking and non-violent achievements from other approaches and approximations, raising traditional, partial thinking to a level of integrity and overcoming its flaws and weaknesses in solving global problems that are o­nly exacerbated in it. The TT methodology for the first time opens up the possibility for social and humanitarian knowledge and sciences to emerge from more than a century of stagnation, depression, crisis, and backwardness from natural, technical, and military sciences, which, unfortunately, brought humanity to eco- and genocide by militaristic efforts and priorities of the West. Peace and nonviolence have never been the civilizational values and priorities of the West, with rare national exceptions of peacefulness. Therefore, its whole story is filled with wars and violence, which gave Gandhi grounds to qualify it as satanic and predict, it will destroy itself (CWMG). Therefore, the crisis of the humanities is natural for the West.

The trend of stagnation and the lag of the humanities from the natural, technical and military sciences, which created the gulf between two cultures, was noticed more than 60 years ago by Charles Snow, who called to destroy this gulf by the new scientific revolution, as long as this gulf exists, society is not able to think sensibly ", i.e. non-violently (Snow, 1985). Since then, unfortunately, due to the depression of the social sciences, this gap has o­nly deepened to this day. It is overcome by the TM scientific revolution of the humanities with their fundamental discovery of spherons as the "non-violence law" of Gandhi. o­nly discovery of spherons makes TT the substantially new [nonviolent] manner of thinking of the humanities. Moreover, knowledge of spherons provides these sciences with the priority and advantage of integrity/wholeness over natural science, which can never master the integrity of the Universe and thinking from the whole to parts, due to the Universe infinity in space/time and the inaccessibility of its integrity to human limited by minimal space/time. Holistic scientific images of the Universe will always remain transient hypotheses that continuously replace each other in the history of natural science. Holistic knowledge is available to a human o­nly within the framework of his social life, limited by the minimum physical space/time.

A human is capable of mastering the integrity of his limited social being in his humanities through the knowledge of spherons and through his substantial new thinking from the integrity of spherons to the knowledge of their historically transient parts and forms. "To destroy the gulf" between sciences and the humanities (between "two cultures") is possible o­nly through their intermediary - biology, the object of which are biological life forms, which are limited, like people/society, to Earth space/time but based o­n infinite in space/time laws of physics and chemistry. Other forms of biological and social life, besides earthly, are unknown to science. U. Maturana (1963) discovers their commonality in the genetic structures of autopoiesis, which are socially embodied in the structural harmony of nonviolent spherons. Epistemologically, they become available o­nly to TT in its methodological movement from the social integrity of spherons to the knowledge of all its parts in the entire infinite multitude of their transitory historical and cultural forms.

The advantage and priority of the integrity of the humanities in TT not o­nly bridges the gap between two cultures, but also establishes a bridge between them, imposing social and ethical restrictions o­n the use of natural energies, primarily nuclear, for violent influences o­n the socio-and bio-spheres of the Earth. The discovery of spherons and the conscious use of their fundamental "nonviolence law" of Gandhi returns the sociosphere/noosphere of the Earth to the course of natural nonviolent being through the priority of "substantively new manner of thinking" - tetranet thinking (TT).

A substantially new manner of thinking is required not o­nly by exacerbated global problems, solutions of which have not been visible for almost a century, but also by the intensive development of the Internet and digital technologies, which TT provides an adequate response. Its intensive and wide-scale development in all branches of social knowledge requires an WASS, free from the pressure of both traditional scientific institutions and the oppressive tutelage of general scientific Academies, in which social and humanitarian disciplines are marginalized and left in the back of financial and scientific stagnation.

The creation of WASS will be a breakthrough of socio-humanitarian thinking and science from age-old stagnation and crisis. If it is established at the national level, it will provide any country with a world leadership in this field of knowledge, which will undoubtedly become the priority and most effective in the 21st century. TT gives a second life to Gandhi's non-violence, revealing its social origins and is capable of mastering and using this "greatest force of humanity", providing both TT and the socio-humanities with a natural title of "Gandhian Sciences and Thinking."

The past experience of our appeal to governments and international organizations convinced us of the lack of political will for peace and non-violence among their leaders, because they demonstrate o­nly the will to confrontation, war and armament, whipping up their race and military budgets. However, despite this, we are convinced that this trend cannot be infinite and it will soon exhaust itself and break down in its internal disharmony and lifelessness. Then the need for a substantially new manner of thinking and its international development in the relevant WASS will become obvious. Therefore, our efforts will not be useless and vain in any case and in all aspects: scientific, humanitarian, social, peacemaking and political. Our innovative scientific searches and peace books and projects live with this hope and faith.

 

1.5. Summary. Two thinking: two destinies and two humanity futures.

"Hack" o­ne, not to "die" and survive.

 

Our time is the decisive choice of destiny and future for humanity. His entire previous history led to the very brink of nuclear self-destruction, which would inevitably become a global ecocide and genocide, combined in a single planetary noospheral collapse. Its reason is realized by the greatest minds of the geniuses in the middle of the last century: Gandhi, Einstein, Snow, Kennedy. Mahatma Gandhi defined the dominant Western civilization as satanic, violent, which will destroy itself and saw the way out it in the law of non-violence as the greatest force of humanity. Albert Einstein emphasized the inability of traditional violent and partial thinking to solve the global problems created by it and ensure the survival of humanity, therefore, as he wrote, if humanity wants to survive, we shall require substantially new [nonviolent] manner of thinking as its salvatory alternative and addition. Charles Snow saw the mortal threat of humankind in the gulf between two cultures, between two methods of thinking: industrial, technocratic, partial and humanitarian, humanistic, holistic. John Kennedy summed up the tragic situation of humankind as an inevitable choice for it: "Mankind must put an end to war or war puts an end to mankind."

          What has changed in this tragic existential situation of humanity for 80-60 years? Virtually nothing, o­nly it became even more tragic. The real priority of humanity in the ecocide/genocide has not changed. Humanity as moved to its death in the nuclear shameful self-destruction since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as and continues to stubbornly move towards it under the zombie melodies of the false global consciousness of well-being implanted by all mainstream media. The most recent fact of the priority movement to ecocide/genocide today is the decision of the United States to invest more than a trillion dollars in modernizing nuclear weapons until 2035, which spurs its race for the near future. This is what Joseph Cirincione, president of Ploughshares Fund, author of Nuclear Nightmares: Securing the World Before It Is Too Late (2015), says: We thought the arms race was over. Its not over. We are in a new arms race. Every single nuclear-armed country is building new nuclear weapons and heading towards a confrontation point. Youve got to be a real optimist to think that you can keep thousands of nuclear weapons in fallible human hands indefinitely and something terrible is not going to happen.

          Therefore, today we are all in that tragic situation in which nothing remains but to hack or die (Pawlik, 2019). Maybe more precisely: "hack" to "not die." It is good that the West is beginning to understand this saving priority. Hacking does not mean forcibly destroying, as the author emphasizes, who rejects any violent revolution. Hack means finding a substantial new [non-violent] manner of thinking (Einstein), overcoming the deadly traditional industrial and technocratic way of thinking from part to whole, which is not o­nly an alternative to it, but also complements it, retaining all its achievements and constructive creative opportunities. We proposed above similar, substantially new thinking - nonviolent, humanitarian, humanistic and holistic thinking from the integral genetic structure of spherons to their spatial-temporal functional historical parts, which cannot have any other priority than the life/survival of humanity. Therefore, it rejects and overcomes the priority of the ecocide/genocide of traditional technocratic thinking from part to whole, but retains and integrates in itself all its partial achievements and abilities that can be used for the common good of humanity.

Hack or [not to] die is a formula for a substantially new manner of thinking, a formula for acquiring nonviolent Gandhian thinking, a formula for bridging the gulf of two cultures and a formula for put an end to war before war puts an end to mankind. This integral multipurpose formula is embodied structurally and design in the pluralistic, holistic and harmonious tetranet thinking within the framework of the universal life law of nonviolence of Gandhi. The creative evolution of the sociocybernetic tetranet thinking is the best way to hack to not die in the Procrustes vises of o­ne-dimensional and violent traditional thinking. This is the best, the o­nly ethical and humanistic version of the future with the survival and prosperity of humanity, with its liberation from militarism and wars and ensuring humanity and human of the first, fundamental right to life, peace, harmony and non-violence. o­nly o­n its platform do all other human rights acquire true meaning and lose their traditional hypocrisy, which without it remain a fiction in a violent militarist world order. The formula hack so not to die showed the path of the revival of Gandhi's non-violence in his second life for all humanity through the sociocybernetic tetranet thinking, with which everyone is good as the common good.


SECTION 2. Spherons of Nonviolence: Their Genetics and Statistics


Introduction

Selection, composition and problems of spherons statistical researches.

Leo Semashko

 

For more than 40 years of development of spheral statistics, including statistics of spherons as its main part, and especially intensively within the GHA during last 14 years, thousands of pages of relevant statistical researches have accumulated in dozens of projects (Semashko, 1992, 2016) published in books and articles by paper and electronic. Of course, it is impossible and inappropriate to reproduce them in this book, dedicated to Gandhi's non-violence, and not statistics. Therefore, it was decided to strictly select statistical researches of spherons in the last, most intensive period of 2012-2019. in the GHA and to reduce / compose each of them to a o­ne-page universal table of eight spheral indices with indication of their authors, object, time, statistical sources and place of the full research publication. All of them, many of them occupying dozens of pages, of which most of them were dedicated to the methodology and methods of spheral statistics, were reduced to o­ne page.

The generalized statistical methodology is briefly presented in the first part of the book that makes it unnecessary to repeat it in every statistical research. Therefore, the compressed format of their publication below allows the reader to focus o­n the final statistical values ​​of the five basic universal and fundamental for all countries and the levels spheral indices of spherons for their verification, analysis, comparisons by countries and periods, etc. This ensures their final assessment and recognition of their unique innovative scientific significance.

Without rejecting traditional statistics and not interfering with its established process, Spheron's statistics contribute to its logical coherence, integrity and congruence, opening up to it fundamentally new opportunities for both theoretical and technological development in fundamentally new integral and global digital statistical technologies. These technologies provide a qualitative increase in its effectiveness as a powerful tool of economics, management and forecasting, which can ultimately determine, regulate and prevent social and economic disharmonies as sources of violence, wars and conflicts.

In this mission, spheral statistics becomes a powerful scientific tool for cognition and cybernetic harmonious regulation of the "greatest force of non-violence" of spherons, which was intuitively felt, predicted and used by the genius of Mahatma Gandhi. The statistics of spherons makes available the understanding and conscious use of this "greatest force of non-violence" for all peoples and governments in order to solve peacefully and prevent conflicts of different groups and different nature.

Of course, the results of statistical studies of spherons presented below, conducted o­n a purely volunteer basis by individual enthusiasts and non-profit organizations, constitute o­nly the very beginning of the development of new statistical science and technology. But, as the proverb says, Every beginning is difficult, which will undoubtedly find support and continuation in institutional forms along with the corresponding budget and corporate financing.

It is also natural to have special difficulties and problems, as in any new science, in the spheral statistics of spherons.
          First, this is the problem of the accuracy of spheral indices, the error of which is within the limits of the permissible error of traditional statistics and does not go beyond its boundaries.
          Secondly, this is a problem of classifiers in the different countries, regions and periods with different names of indices and different units of population size, which have to be entered into spheral classifiers.
          Thirdly, it is a transition from o­ne, traditional statistics to another, spheral and vice versa.
          Fourthly, it is a problem of different methods of different countries and different levels of statistical research. They can be judged, for example, by the extensive methodology of similar studies of spherons of four countries: Russia, India, USA and Kazakhstan in 1950-2010 (Semashko&C., 2014a); o­n the methodology of statistical studies of spherons of educational institutions (Semashko&C., 2014b), etc. There are many other problems, including subjective and psychological o­nes, which cannot be listed.

The briefest results of spheron statistical studies published below are o­nly the tip of their iceberg, which is placed in dozens of books, articles, programs and projects published since 1992. We list o­nly the most important of the books: The Spheral Approach (1992), Sociology for Pragmatists (1999) , Tetrasociology: The Revolution of Social Thinking (2000), Tetrasociology: Responses to Challenges (2002), Harmonious Civilization (2009), The ABC of Harmony (2012), Global Peace Science (2015/6) and others. The most complete list of 188 projects with elements of spheral statistics since 1976 to 2008 is presented in the book: Harmonious Civilization (2009) and in the list of 68 subsequent o­nes to 2019 published o­n the GHA website (Semashko, 2011). In some cases, due to space constraints, we have abstracted from some valuable sections of the original statistical studies: gender, employment, age, percentage, etc. But they are all saved in the full publications of these studies o­n the GHA website.

In view of the innovative and especially complex methodological, methodical and psychological nature of the statistical researches of spherons, each of their participants, regardless of the quality of the results, deserves the highest praise and moral recognition for it. In total, the results of statistical studies of spherons of 76 countries are presented below, o­n four levels (1. country, 2. region, state, province, 3. district, city and 4. unit: enterprise, school, etc.) and for 120 years. In total, they are 120 researches in o­nly 7 recent years, which were performed by 26 authors from 10 countries. We are happy to call their heroic names: Ayo Ayoola-Amale, Alexander Semashko, Ammar Banni, Andrei Semashko, Vera Popovich, Victor Danilov, Zia-ul-Islam, Leo Semashko, Leela Pradhan, Mazhar Hashmi, Maria Ascona, Maitreyee Roy, Noor Larik , Olga Kashina, Polina Semashko, Pravat Dhal, Rashida Bukhari, Roksana Sadykova, Svetlana Kuskovskaya, Stephan Semashko, Stephen Amoah, Stephen Tabi, Subhash Chandra, Takis Ioannidis, Thea Marie Robert, Habyarimana Heli. Their 10 countries are: Algeria, Argentina, Ghana, Greece, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Rwanda, France. Their names are presented below in the published results of their statistical studies, and their portraits are posted o­n the covers of this book, along with other authors and contributors. GHA highly appreciates their contributions and expresses them heartfelt gratitude and appreciation.

In this book, dedicated to Gandhi's non-violence, the published statistics of spherons confirms their role as the fundamental cause of the Gandhi "non-violence law of life" as "the greatest force of mankind", excluding war and militarism and ensuring the survival and prosperity of all peoples in their global peace from their spheronsconscious harmony.

 

2.1. Spherons of Different Countries: Statistical Tables

 

Ghana

Spherons Statistics for 1984, 2000 and 2010, million people*

By

Stephen Amoah and Ayo Ayoola-Amale

 

Spheral indices

The Employed in Branches of Four Spheres

1984

2000

2010

P

Population of Ghana:

P = P1+P2+P3+P4

12,3

18,9

 

24,7

P1

Spheron-1: P1= P1w + Pn

9,7

13,6

 

15,4

P1w

P1w = sum of working in the branches of Sociosphere:

2,4

2,3

 

1,0

Pn

Pn = non-working population.

Pn = P Pw

 

7,2

11,2

14,4

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

5,0

7,7

10,2

P2

Spheron-2: = sum of working in the branches of Infosphere:

0,8

2,2

0,1

P3

Spheron-3: = sum of working in the branches of Orgsphere:

0,1

0,2

0,2

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the branches of Technosphere:

1,7

3,0

8,9


*The article full (13p.) publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

 

Statistical source(s):

1.Ghana Statistical Service. GSS (1986). 1984, Population Census of Ghana (The gazette 2)

2.Ghana Statistical Service.GSS (2004). 2000 Population Census of Ghana (The gazette 3)

3.Ghana Statistical Service. GSS (2012). 2010 Population and Housing Census Summary Report of final Results. http://www.statsghana.gov.gh

 

Stephen Amoah, MSc Statistics, PhD Applied Statistics

Ghana Statistical Service, Chief Statistician,

Accra, Ghana

Web:http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=837

 

Ayo Ayoola-Amale, J.D., Ghana University Professor,

Nigeria & Ghana, Accra

Web: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=524

 

Tanzania

Spherons Statistics for 2012, millions people*

By

Stephen Amoah, Ayo Ayoola-Amale and Stephen Tabi

 

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2012

%

P

Tanzania population: P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

24.59

100%

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

9.49

38.6

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

0.74

3.0

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

8.75

35.6

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

 15,85

 64,4

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

0.23

0.9

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

0.35

1.4

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

14.53

59.1

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

 

Statistical source(s):

1. Tanzania - Population and Housing Census 2012:

https://africaopendata.org/dataset/a476b234-dc4a-4d86-8fda-bf5c6bdb1007/resource/f4ec0f20-98b3-4ccd-ab37-9633e8517b22/download/2012-population-and-housing-census---descriptive-tables---zanzibar.pdf

2. Tanzania - Population and Housing Census 2012. Population Distribution by Administrative Areas, 2013:

http://www.tzdpg.or.tz/fileadmin/documents/dpg_internal/dpg_working_groups_clusters/cluster_2/water/WSDP/Background_information/2012_Census_General_Report.pdf

 

Stephen Amoah, MSc Statistics, PhD Applied Statistics

Ghana Statistical Service, Chief Statistician,

Accra, Ghana

Web:http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=837

 

Ayo Ayoola-Amale, J.D., Ghana University Professor,

Nigeria & Ghana, Accra

Web: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=524

 

Stephen Tabi: MSc Statistics, BSc Statistics,

Ghana Statistical Service, Statistician, M&E Unit,

Accra, Ghana

 

Sierra Leone

Spherons Statistics for 2015, millions people*

By

Stephen Amoah, Ayo Ayoola-Amale and Stephen Tabi

 

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2015

%

P

Sierra Leone population: P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

7,19

100

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

2,33

32.8

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

0.15

2.1

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

2,18

30.7

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

4,92 

69,2 

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

0.03

0.4

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

0.12

1.6

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

4,62

65.1

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

 

Statistical source(s):

Statistics Sierra Leone. 2015 Population and housing census summary of final results

Statistics Sierra Leone 2015 Population and Housing Census - Summary of Final Results

Statistics Sierra Leone. 2014 Labour Force Survey Report - 22 September 2015

https://www.statistics.sl/index.php/census/census-2015.html

 

Stephen Amoah, MSc Statistics, PhD Applied Statistics

Ghana Statistical Service, Chief Statistician,

Accra, Ghana

Web:http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=837

 

Ayo Ayoola-Amale, J.D., Ghana University Professor,

Nigeria & Ghana, Accra

Web: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=524

 

Stephen Tabi: MSc Statistics, BSc Statistics,

Ghana Statistical Service, Statistician, M&E Unit,

Accra, Ghana

  

Mauritius

Spherons Statistics for 2011, millions people*

By

Stephen Amoah, Ayo Ayoola-Amale and Stephen Tabi

 

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2011

%

P

Mauritiuspopulation: P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

1.26

100

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

0.55

43.9

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

0.15

12.3

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

0.40

31.6

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

0.86 

68.4 

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

0.14

11.4

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

0.17

13.3

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

0.40

31.5

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

 

Statistical source(s):

2011 Housing and Population Census, Mauritius

http://statsmauritius.govmu.org/English/Pages/Housing-and-Population-Census-2011.aspx

http://statsmauritius.govmu.org/English/CensusandSurveys/Documents/ESI/toc1.htm

 

 

Stephen Amoah, MSc Statistics, PhD Applied Statistics

Ghana Statistical Service, Chief Statistician,

Accra, Ghana

Web:http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=837

 

Ayo Ayoola-Amale, J.D., Ghana University Professor,

Nigeria & Ghana, Accra

Web: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=524

 

Stephen Tabi: MSc Statistics, BSc Statistics,

Ghana Statistical Service, Statistician, M&E Unit,

Accra, Ghana

 

 

Botswana

Spherons Statistics for 2012, millions people*

By

Stephen Amoah, Ayo Ayoola-Amale and Stephen Tabi

 

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2012

%

P

Botswana population: P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

2.02

100

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

0.71

35.4

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

0.13

6.8

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

0.57

28.6

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

1.45 

71.4 

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

0.80

39.6

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

0.11

5.6

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

0.39

19.4

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

 

Statistical source(s):

 

 

Stephen Amoah, MSc Statistics, PhD Applied Statistics

Ghana Statistical Service, Chief Statistician,

Accra, Ghana

Web:http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=837

 

Ayo Ayoola-Amale, J.D., Ghana University Professor,

Nigeria & Ghana, Accra

Web: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=524

 

Stephen Tabi: MSc Statistics, BSc Statistics,

Ghana Statistical Service, Statistician, M&E Unit,

Accra, Ghana

 

 

Rwanda

Spherons Statistics for 2015, millions people*

By

Habyarimana Heli

 

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2015

P

Rwanda population: P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

6.76

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

1.08

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

0.15

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

0,9

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

 5.86

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

0.06

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

0.11

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

5.25

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

 

Statistical source:

http://www.statistics.gov.rw/about-us/national-statistical-system

 

Habyarimana Heli

College teacher

Kigali, Rwanda

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=361

 

 

Pakistan

Spherons Statistics for 2014-15, millions people*

by

Noor Muhammad Larik

S. Mazhar Hussain Hashmi

Ms. Rashida Bukhari

Zia-ul-Islam

 

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2014-15

%

P

Pakistan population: P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

189.190

100%

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

145.091

76.69

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

13.219

6.99

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

131.872

69.70

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

 57.218

 30.30

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

0.267

0.14

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

1.499

0.79

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

42.333

22.38

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

 

Statistical source(s):

Pakistan Labour Force Survey 2014-15:

http://www.pbs.gov.pk/content/labour-force-survey-2014-15-annual-report

 

Dr. Noor Muhammad Larik: Director General, Federal Bureau of Statistics (retired);

Chief Statistician, Pakistan Council for Science and Technology,

Islamabad, Pakistan,

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=847

 

S. Mazhar Hussain Hashmi: Deputy Director General, Federal Bureau of Statistics (retired),

Islamabad, Pakistan,

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=847

 

Ms. Rashida Bukhari: Deputy Director General Federal Bureau of Statistics (retired),

Principal Training Wing, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics,

Islamabad, Pakistan,

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=847

 

Zia-ul-Islam: Chief Statistical Officer (retired), Pakistan Bureau of Statistics,

System Analyst, National Institute of Population Studies,

Islamabad, Pakistan,

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=847

 

India

Spherons Statistics for 2011, millions people*

By

Maitreyee B. Roy and Pravat K. Dhal

 

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2011

%

P

India population: P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

1210.57

100

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

827.09

68.3

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

98.21

8.1

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

728.88

60.2

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

481.68

39.8

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

49.77

4.1

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

67.30

5.6

P4

Spheron-4 = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

266.41

22.0

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

 

Commentary. The Spherons constitutes global societal structure and the actors of humanity survival including India. The Spherons Statistics is the proof of their reality, their measurement and the degree of their knowledge and its digitalization. Spherons are the source of humanity life, the foundation of all its higher and eternal values: Harmony, Peace, Solidarity, Nonviolence, Justice, Unity, Freedom, Equality, Fraternity, Love and Happiness. Spherons are the more important largest parts of the country population so their knowledge is especially important for India as the second largest country in the world by population.

 

Statistical sources:

1.Indian Labour Year Book 2011-2012. Government of India. Ministry of Labour and EmploymentLabour Bureau. Simla/Chandigarh:

http://www.labourbureaunew.gov.in/UserContent/ILYB_2015.pdf?pr_id=zfAb%2BvimybM%3DMar31,2017

2. Industrial Classification Data Information 2011. Office of the register General and Census Commissioner India

 

Prof. Maitreyee Bardhan Roy,

Ex Principal Basanti Devi College. Emeritus Professor in Political Science. Presently: Diamond Harbour Women University. ICSSR Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Development Studies,

Kolkata, India,

maitreyee25@rediffmail.com

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=481

 

Pravat Kumar Dhal, PhD

Professor and Head

Department of Education

Magadh University, Bodhgaya, India

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=890

Greece

Spherons Statistics for 2017, millions people*

By

Takis Ioannides

 

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2017

%

P

Greece population: P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

10,7

100%

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

7,2

66,91

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

0,2

1,86

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

7

65,05

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

 3.7

 34.95

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

0,3

2,96

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

0,8

7,45

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

2,4

22,67

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

 

Statistical source(s):

Hellenic Statistical Authority Labour Force Survey 2017

http://www.statistics.gr/en/statistics/-/publication/SJO03/2017?fbclid=IwAR0J-TPBr1N1_k9Cty_gSu9r5FSGYTiorFQ9dcmcTSjiDPyUBkxbL5b3qXk

 

Dr. Takis Ioannides

Historian, writer,

Athens, Greece

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=138

 

 

France

Spherons Statistics for 2015, in millions people*

By

Théa Marie Robert

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2015

%

P

France population: P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

66,59

100

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

42, 6

64

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

4,05

6,1

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

38,56

57,91

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

 28,03

 42,09

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

3.74

5.54

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

4,2

6,3

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

16.2

24.39

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

 

Statistical source(s):

Statistics France 2015

 

Théa Marie Robert

Artist,

Chamonix Mont-Blanc, France

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=467

  

Russia
Spherons Statistics for 1991, 1996, 2002
2010, in millions people*

By

Leo Semashko and Olga Kashina

 

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

1991

1996

 

2002

 

2010

P

Russia population:

P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

148,5

148,0

145,3

142,9

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

81,6

89,1

93,2

85,0

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

6,8

7,1

6,7

11,4

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

70,3

79,2

79,9

75,5

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

78,2

68,8

65,4

67,4

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

8,5

7,4

14,0

4,0

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

8,5

7,4

10,4

11,0

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

54,4

46,9

34,3

41,0


*The article full publication (16 p.):
https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=783

Statistical sources:

  1. . - 2013 / . : 2013.
  2. ( ). : 2010. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/population/trud/Untitled452-10.pdf
  3. 2010 .
  4. 2013. : 2014.
  5. . . (2014). 2010.: , , : http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=614
  6. . (2006) / . .. .-: 2006, . 13
  7. 2010 .
  8. 1. .
  9. 2. - .
  10. 6. .
  11. 7. .

Olga Kashina, Ph.D. (statistics),

Saint-Petersburg, Russia

http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=757


Leo Semashko
, PhD; Professor, RANS;

Saint-Petersburg, Russia;

http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=286

Belarus and Russia

Spherons Statistics for 2015, in millions people*

By

Olga Kashina and Leo Semashko

 

 

 

Belarus

Russia

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2015

%

2015

%

P

 

Population average, total:

P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

9,5

 

100,0

146,4

 

100,0

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

6,0

62,7

90,0

61,2

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

1,0

10,1

15,5

10,6

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

5,0

52,6

74,1

50,6

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

4,58

47,4

72,7

49,4

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

0,08

0,8

1,8

1,2

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

0,3

2,7

7,0

4,7

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

3,2

33,7

48,1

32,9


*The article full publication (12 p.):
https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=783

 

Comment. The most numerous is spheron-1, in which 62.7% of the population of Belarus and 61.2% of the population of Russia are concentrated. Spheron-4 is in second place, respectively, 33.7% and 32.9%. There are a few population in spherons 2 and 3. The overall dynamics is a steady decline in the number of spheroon-4, due to which the number of spherons 2 and 3 is growing, as it can be seen from other tables of the number of spherons of Russia for different years. Through this (thermo) dynamics of the number of spherons, a constant self-tuning (self-organization) of the structural harmony of spherons is ensured.

 

Statistical sources:

  1. /.-.:2015
  2. /.-.:2016
  3. /.-: 2016

 

Olga Kashina, Ph.D. (statistics),

Saint-Petersburg, Russia

http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=757

 

Leo Semashko, PhD; Professor, RANS;

Saint-Petersburg, Russia;

http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=286

 

Russia
Spherons Statistics for 2016, in millions people*

By

Alexander Semashko and Stefan Semashko

 

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2016

%

P

Russia population:

P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

146,80

100%

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

82,60

56%

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

13,32

 

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

69,27

 

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

77,53

 

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

2,29

2%

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

11,90

8%

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

50,01

34%

 

*The article full publication (10 p.): https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=783

 

Statistical sources:

 

1. http://www.gks.ru

2. http://www.mkrf.ru

3. http://mil.ru

4. http://kalugastat.gks.ru

5. 15 . :

http://school-15-kaluga.narod.ru

 

Alexander Semashko

Economist,

Kaluga, Russia

 

Stephan Semashko,

Pupil of the 6th grade of School No. 15,

Kaluga, Russia

 

 

Kyrgyzstan

Spherons statistics for 2015 in million people. *

by

Vera Popovich and Alexander Semashko

 

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2015

%

P

Kyrgyzstan Population: P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

5,9

100

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

3,8

65

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

0,3

 

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

3,5

 

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

2,4

 

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

0,06

1

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

0,13

2

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

1,884

32

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=783

 

Statistical sources:

 

1. 2015 : https://wiki2.org/ru/_

https://www.populationpyramid.net/ru//2015

2. 2015 : http://www.stat.kg/ru/statistics/download/dynamic/433/

3. 2015 : http://www.stat.kg/ru/statistics/download/dynamic/433/

 

Vera Popovich,

Archivist,

Saint-Petersburg, Russia

 

Alexander Semashko

Economist,

Kaluga, Russia

  

2.2. Spherons of Different Levels in Different Countries: Statistical Tables

 

India

Spherons Statistics of Odisha Statefor 2015, million people*

By

Pravat K. Dhal

Spheral Indices

Population,employed in four spheres of social production

2015

%

P

India, Odisha State population: P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

44.3

100

P1

Spheron-1: P1 = P1w + Pn

26.04

58.8

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in the Sociosphere branches

7.7

4.0

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

23,9

54.8

Pw

Pw = working population = P1w+P2+P3+P4

20.37

46

P2

Spheron-2 = sum of working in the Infosphere branches

1.125

46

P3

Spheron-3 = sum of working in the Orgsphere branches

2.409

5.4

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the Technosphere branches

15.31

34.56

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

 

Statistical sources. Odisha Statistics:

 

http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/file/Odisha%20Economic_Survey_2014-15.pdf

http://pc.odisha.gov.in/Download/Economic_Survey_2016-17.pdf

http://www.desorissa.nic.in/pdf/odisha_at_glance_2016.pdf



Pravat Kumar Dhal, PhD

Professor and Head

Department of Education

Magadh University, Bodhgaya, India

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=890

 

  

Pakistan

Spherons Statistics for 2014-15 in four Provinces:

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Punjab (PNB), Sindh (SDH) and Baluchistan (BLN), million people*

By

Noor Muhammad Larik

S. Mazhar Hussain Hashmi

Ms. Rashida Bukhari

Zia-ul-Islam

Spheral indices

Population, employed in four spheres of social production

KPK

PNB

 

SDH

BLN

P

Population of every province:

P = P1+P2+P3+P4

26,37

102,75

46,81

13,27

P1

Spheron-1: P1= P1w + Pn

22,12

75,61

36,69

10,68

P1w

P1w = sum of working in the branches of Sociosphere:

1,84

6,96

3,49

0.93

Pn

Pn = non-working population. Pn = P Pw

20,29

68,64

 

33,20

4,69

Pw

Pw = working: P1w+P2+P3+P4

6,38

44,11

13,61

8,58

P2

Spheron-2: = sum of working in the branches of Infosphere:

0,04

0,16

0.06

 

0.02

P3

Spheron-3: = sum of working in the branches of Orgsphere:

0,2

0,8

0.45

0.14

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the branches of Technosphere:

4,09

26,19

9,62

2,43


*The article full publication (21 p): https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=836

All indices of the population of the country and the provinces are presented in a gender perspective (male/female) and percentage in the published original research.

 

Statistical source: Pakistan Labour Force Survey 2014-15:

http://www.pbs.gov.pk/content/labour-force-survey-2014-15-annual-report

 

Dr. Noor Muhammad Larik: Director General, Federal Bureau of Statistics (retired);

Chief Statistician, Pakistan Council for Science and Technology,

Islamabad, Pakistan,

S. Mazhar Hussain Hashmi: Deputy Director General, Federal Bureau of Statistics (retired),

Islamabad, Pakistan,

Ms. Rashida Bukhari: Deputy Director General Federal Bureau of Statistics (retired),

Principal Training Wing, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics,

Islamabad, Pakistan,

Zia-ul-Islam: Chief Statistical Officer (retired), Pakistan Bureau of Statistics,

System Analyst, National Institute of Population Studies,

Islamabad, Pakistan,

(At all o­ne webpage is) https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=847

 

Russia
Spherons Statistics for 2016 at the levels of the Central Federal District (CFD), Kaluga Region (KLR),
School 15 of Kaluga (SCK)
in million people and persons*

By

Alexander Semashko and Stefan Semashko

 

Spheral indices

Population, employed in four spheres of social production

CFD

M

KLR

M

SCK

Persons

P

Population of three levels:

P = P1+P2+P3+P4

39,21

1,01

 

1168

P1

Spheron-1: P1= P1w + Pn

19,27

0,52

1138

P1w

P1w = sum of working in the branches of Sociosphere:

3,64

0,08

64

Pn

Pn = non-working population.

Pn = P Pw

15,64

0,44

1074

Pw

Pw = working: P1w+P2+P3+P4

23,57

0,57

94

P2

Spheron-2: = sum of working in the branches of Infosphere:

0,86

0,02

1

 

P3

Spheron-3: = sum of working in the branches of Orgsphere:

3,33

0,08

7

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the branches of Technosphere:

15,74

0,39

22

 

*The article full publication (10 p): https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=783

 

Statistical sources:

 

6. http://www.gks.ru

7. http://www.mkrf.ru

8. http://mil.ru

9. http://kalugastat.gks.ru

10. 15 . :

http://school-15-kaluga.narod.ru

 

Alexander Semashko

Economist,

Kaluga, Russia

 

Stephan Semashko,

Pupil of the 6th grade of School No. 15,

Kaluga, Russia

 

 

Russia

Statistics of St. Petersburg spherons for 2010, million people *

by

Olga Kashina

 

Spheral indices

Population, employed in four spheres of social production

2010

%

P

Population of St. Petersburg: P = P1+P2+P3+P4

4,9

100

P1

Spheron-1: P1= P1w + Pn

2,5

52,1

P1w

P1w = sum of working in the branches of Sociosphere:

0,5

 

Pn

Pn = non-working population: Pn = P Pw

2,1

 

Pw

Pw = working: P1w+P2+P3+P4

2,4 

 

P2

Spheron-2: = sum of working in the branches of Infosphere:

0,3

7,2

P3

Spheron-3: = sum of working in the branches of Orgsphere:

0,4

8,4

P4

Spheron-4: = sum of working in the branches of Technosphere:

1,2

25,2

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=593

 

            Statistical sources:

 

1. ( ).  : 2010. : http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/population/trud/Untitled452-10.pdf.

2. 2010 .

3. 1. .

4. 2. - .

5. 6. .

6. 7. .

7. 029-2007 ( . 1.1). .: 2012.

 

Olga Kashina, Ph.D. (statistics),

Saint-Petersburg, Russia

http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=757

 

  

Russia

Spherons Dynamics of Novoladozhskaya School  2 for 2000-2013*,

Novaya Ladoga, Leningrad region,

by

Svetlana Kuskovskaya

 

Spheral indices

The employed in four spheres of the school, persons

2000

2005

2010

2013

P

All People in the School:
P = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4

917

896

405

402

P1

Spheron-1: P1= P1w + Pn

871

854

383

380

P1w

P1w = sum of the working in branches of sociosphere:

85

82

38

33

Pn

Pn = Students (nonworking) number:

Pn = P - Pw

796

772

345

347

Pw

Pw = working: P1w+P2+P3+P4

131

124

60

55

P2

Spheron-2: = sum of the working in branches of infosphere:

7

6

5

5

P3

Spheron-3: = sum of the working in branches of orgsphere:

10

10

7

7

P4

Spheron-4: = Technical staff of the school

29

26

10

10

 

*The article full publication: https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=593

 

Notes. The number of students in our school has decreased over the years for a few reasons:

1. Demographic: fertility is falling in our region,

2. Economic: in our town closed several enterprises,

3. Migration: young people go to the city, to St. Petersburg.

At the same time, there was a reduction in the number of school employees; many staff units were abolished: speech therapist, psychologist and others; the nurse is listed in the hospital. The school vitality is ensured by the balance/harmony of the spherons employed in it.

 

Svetlana Kuskovskaya,

Primary school teacher,

My work experience at this school is 28 years.

Novaya Ladoga, Russia,

 svetlana-5506@bk.ru

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=ru_c&key=505

 

 

Rwanda