2.14. Discovery of the sociocultural technology of harmony: the aspect of sphere/global democracy
To designate priority forces for social harmony, it is necessary to answer the question about the technology of the forces' operation. This is a problem of sociocultural technology. When, in the past, social transformations amounted, basically, to nothing more than violence (revolutionary, military, religious, familial, etc.), such a problem didn't exist. But when it is being asserted that social harmony can be achieved only non-violently, then a very complex problem arises regarding sociocultural technology. In the most general terms, sociocultural technology is a system of non-violent ways to gradually achieve social harmony and prosperity for non-violent sphere classes and groups; for them, this is the way of employment, life, practice. Briefly, this is the sphere sociocultural technology of harmony (SSTH), which, essentially, is a sphere one and which we will call sphere technology or sociocultural technology, each meaning the same. TetraSociology aspires to be not only a theory of SST, employment, sphere classes, social equality, social harmony, etc., but also the sociocultural technology for achieving harmony, equality, justice, prosperity.
TetraSociology and sociocultural technology are two sides of the same medal: the second one is a result and a practical realization of the first. As a sociocultural technology, TetraSociology can be interpreted, roughly, as a quest for the necessary and sufficient harmony of any society's resources, processes, structures which leading to the society's prosperity. Quest for and achievement of harmony through the sociocultural technology means a particular system and sequence of the practical transformations of the coordinates and constants of social objects/subjects.
Sociocultural technology regards prosperity as the most propitious, optimal, stable, the best possible social state, the state which the social world in general, and all its elements, down to a private person, teleologically aspire to. The state of non-violent and fair prosperity can result only from a harmonious, balanced and proportional development of sphere structures; and such a development, in turn, results from the harmony of reproduction processes and sphere resources. The prosperity's beginning and foundations lie in the harmony of PIOT resources within the harmony of people's reproductive employment; the latter determines the harmony of PDEC resources and SIOT structures, the apex for which is prosperity, equilibrium, stability. Because resources are spheres' (SIOT structures') products, the process of achieving and preserving prosperity is an essentially endless repetition of the development cycle: resources-processes-structures. But each separate developmental cycle causes a modification, whether positive or negative, of resources, processes and/or structures. Inasmuch as they are dimensions of the social world's statics, dynamics, structuratics, they, together with people's employment that binds them together, determine the genetics of prosperity. All social dimensions and states, including prosperity through harmony, start with employment. Hence the compact formulation for sociocultural technology: prosperity through the harmony of employment in statics, dynamics, structuratics.
Sociocultural technology is a conscious and regulated repetition of developmental cycles, aimed at achieving and preserving prosperity as the ultimate goal; this goal permanently necessitates supplies of and confirmation by resources/statics, processes/dynamics, structures/structuratics. Sociocultural technology realized in controllable developmental cycles can be roughly pictured as a closed-circuit dialectic model, where each element influences everything (including itself, according to the law of feedback), but taken together, the elements are teleologically oriented at one element - prosperity, its genetics.
Chart. The sociocultural technology cycle.
In a small book, there is no room for detailing all elements of the sociocultural technology cycle, so we will review, as before, only the first and determinative element: resources/statics.
So, if sociocultural technology is a quest for, achievement and preservation of prosperity, the latter being a result of harmony, then what resources are necessary for seeking and achieving harmony itself? The answer to this is grounded in statics. Here it is: For seeking and achieving social harmony, the following resources are NECESSARY:
- Social forces/actors that are interested in and capable of achieving harmony. As we established above, sphere classes and groups are the forces/actors .
- Appropriate information and informational technology, enabling us to calculate the balances and proportions of sphere resources, processes, and structures necessary for harmony. As we established above, SIST is the IT required.
- Appropriate sphere organization of the power mechanism ensuring a proportional resources distribution among all the society's classes and groups. The proportional resources distribution by mechanisms of power, which is necessary for harmony, is the most difficult question of both theory and technology: we explore it further.
- Material resources are necessary for social harmony, and provision of the social norms of these resources which are minimally necessary for social harmony.
The sequence of stages for realisation of sociocultural technology and its logic correlates with the priority rankings among SST coordinates and constants: PIOT resources/statics, PDEC processes/dynamics, SIOT structures/structuratics, PDDD states/genetics. We will limit ourselves to reviewing the stages for realisation of sociocultural technology within the framework of statics.
First stage. Designating sphere social groups interested in seeking and achieving social harmony exactly due to their sphere structure/employment, and capable of achieving it exactly due to sphere employment.
Second stage. Elaboration of a sociocultural project of harmonisation any social element on the basis of necessary information and SIST.
Third stage. Organising power and management according to the sphere pattern; this is necessary for harmonisation resources, processes, structures in order to achieve prosperity.
Fourth stage. Material resources necessary for harmonisation and prosperity.
Of the stages and resources of sociocultural technology mentioned, the first two are explored above. As for material resources, we will assume that the current state of the technosphere allows to provide them, in needed quality and quantity, for social harmony at any level, from an individual to the humankind: the problem lies only in their harmonious and fair distribution, which power is to ensure. What has left is the third, organizational resource and stage of sociocultural technology -, the most complex and crucial one, connected with organization of power distributing resources.
Let us explore it in detail, applying it to country level.
On country level, organizational resource is concentrated in the state, state power and its different organs, although it is not limited to the state. Of the two possible forms of state organization, monarchy and republic, in the XXth century - totalitarism and polyarchy, democratic republic or pluralistic democracy won. W.Churchill wittily summed up the result of this historical contest: "Democracy is the worst form of government, with the exception of all others". In other edition this judgement is those " Democracy is imperfect, but better its mankind nothing has thought up ". Therefore, there is no need to prove that only democracy, as the single appropriate form, can be the organizational form of harmonisation's sociocultural technology.
But there is democracy and democracy. Democracy's shortcomings, weaknesses, failures are well known. Democracy's main defect consists in its branch arrangement, dimensionlessness of its branch pluralism, branch interests' domination over common ones: a situation whereby only branch elites rule and struggle for power. Branch division and distribution of power proves unequal, unfair, disharmonious; it discredits the idea itself of folkpower causing it to degenerate into a domination by branch elites. The branch arrangement of traditional democracy is determined by branch classes, which make the basis for traditional democracy and which we explored above. Thus, there is every reason to call traditional democracy "branch democracy": this sums up its general defect leading to many of its other well-known weaknesses and limitations. Just as branch classes are to blame for the social world's total disharmony, branch democracy (branch governments) is responsible for it too, and for disharmonious unjust distribution of all resources of society. Neither branch classes nor branch democracy are able of overcoming total disharmony and unjust distribution. Such is TetraSociology's general evaluation of traditional, branch democracy.
Only sphere classes and groups organised into a new appropriate kind of democracy, which we will call sphere democracy, can achieve social harmony. Let us define sphere democracy. Sphere democracy (tetrademocracy, tetrarchy) is a specific, harmonious form of pluralistic democracy, based on the division of population into 4 sphere classes, and on inclusion of all population into the definition of "people/folk" and on EQUAL power distribution among elected representatives of all sphere classes in all sectors and forms of power. Sphere democracy aspires to social harmony and justice. It ensures that they are achieved and preserved through an appropriate arrangement of state power, fit for distributing social resources harmoniously. Sphere democracy is GLOBAL, accessible and acceptable for all nations.
Over traditional branch distribution of power, sphere democracy superimposes a new, sphere classes power distribution, which creates a qualitatively new social basis for power, and this basis, in turn, determines power's qualitatively new features (see below). EQUAL power distribution between sphere classes, ensuring equal and harmonious distribution of other resources between them, rests on EQUAL necessity for exist society of EACH onE of sphere classes, IRRESPECTIVE of the number of people in a class, which constantly change from great set of variety social factors. The following table charts, drawing from an example of the Russian state, sphere democracy's major difference: EQUAL power distribution between the representatives of all four sphere classes.
Table. Distribution of power between sphere classes and groups.
CLASSES of the PEOPLE
(Tonal: 450+188 places)
(Total: roughly 60 ministerial places)
(Equal number of the judges?)
(Total: roughly 2800 staff places)
|Humanitarian class||157 places||15 ministerial places
Department ~ 700 places
|Information class||157 places||15 ministerial places
Department ~ 700 places
|Organizational class||157 places||15 ministerial places
Department ~ 700 places
|Technical class||157 places||15 ministerial places
|Economic Arbitration Court||Economic
Department ~ 700 places
- The table deals with power branches only on federal level, although the principle of equal power distribution between sphere classes of the people applies to all power levels, including local self-government.
- Federal Assembly, the Russian parliament, has 450 seats in the lower house - the State Duma, and 178 seats in the upper house/Soviet of Federations. 628 seats overall; divided by four, it makes 157 seats for each sphere class.
- The Russian government has about 60 ministries and departments. The number for ministries and departments is constantly changing, so the number provided can be incorrect, but it does not matter in our case, because the number does not affect the principle of equal distribution of governmental posts between sphere classes. The same applies to courts, and sections of the President's Administration. Each sphere group of ministries form a SUB-government in the government, coordinated by the relevant vice-premier. Significantly, over 15 years ago in the U.S., administrations in 25 states established four sub-governments (economy, human resources, organizational management, nature resources), and in Canada, the government of Quebec province created four inter-branch committees: economic, social, cultural, and regional development. In both cases, these government bodies are very similar to our sphere subdivisions or bodies. Re to sphere courts, their main task is consideration of the population complaints on illegal actions of state branch bodies of the appropriate spheres.
- We are not able to participate in the polemics regarding the reasons for singling out presidential power as a power's special branch. Although some constitutions essentially identify it with executive power, many other constitutions bestow on it additional functions of coordinating and dovetailing the actions of three other branches; we believe this is a sufficient reason for regarding it as a power's separate branch.
- Similar power tables can be created for any country, any state, any power level. (In 1990-1993 years, when I was the deputy first democratic Lensovet/Petrosovet, I developed the administration bill of branch structure reorganisation of legislative and executive power in St.-Petersburg in sphere structure. See: The list of applications of a TetraSociology in the Appendices.)
Sphere democracy's major aim is ensuring for sphere classes an equal participation in power, equal power distribution between them, which with necessity will ensure fair distribution of other resources between them. Political harmony is the first necessary condition of social spheres and classes harmony. It will ensure an optimum level of socio-economic equality and overcoming of stratification extremes, will make a basis of prosperity. Sphere democracy excludes absolute equality, which is utopian, harmful, unattainable. It requires the only certain level of equality/inequality that is necessary for social harmony and prosperity, and this level varies at different stages of society's development: it is constantly fluctuating, albeit within certain limits. Sphere democracy's ultimate goal consists in ensuring harmonious balance of equality/inequality between sphere classes at every given stretch of time of society's existence.
Let us briefly go over sphere democracy's major qualities and features.
- Constitutional division of the country's population/people into 4 sphere classes and securing for each an equal right to power. By social basis of sphere democracy, power and politics are sphere classes, that is fixed in Constitution. This provision disallows a forceful tethering of a person to a class; the classification is based solely on a person's main employment. Any restrictions on mobility and on occupation changes, except professional ones, are disallowed too.
- Equal power distribution between sphere classes in all four power branches: presidential, legislative, executive, judiciary, in appropriate power organs, called sphere organs.
- Providing voting rights for minors, whose access to power branch democracy bars, thus limiting its own scope; prior to the child's full legal age, his/her voting right is vested in the parents. This makes sphere democracy the most social kind of democracy.
- A significant increase in the numbers of orgclass, not so much by recruiting more state officials as by involving people (women and the young in the first place) into local self-government and introducing a modest fee for the participation. (Transition from the priority of electoral democracy to that of participatory democracy.)
- Introducing electronic democracy: electronic voting (electronic plebiscites), by sphere classes, on the most important bills concerning self-government, the country, spheres; anti-fraud security and informational safety of the voting should be guaranteed.
- Forming political parties by sphere principle, by sphere classes, rather than by branch principle.
- Securing, for every sphere organ of power, equal rights to control over the other sphere organs, thus preventing or significantly diminishing corruption and abuses of power.
- Securing the right to equal representation for men and women in sphere organs of power, as well as equal representation for the young.
- For the post of the head or president of the state, sphere democracy prefers a young person to an old one, a woman to a man. At least four candidates participate in choices on a post of the state head: the young woman and man, elderly woman and man, representing four sphere classes.
- The Constitution classifies civil rights and freedoms according to society's spheres and people's employment.
- Introducing the notion of "sphere majority," whereby decisions are made by each sphere class's or organ's majority, rather than by a simple majority.
- Sphere democracy is directed against the traditional and stale political priority secured for themselves by the power elite of older men, and their characteristic methods of governing society (branch-based, disharmonious, primarily authoritarian, violent, divisive, one-sided, etc.).
- Constitutional establishment, within certain limits, of an approximate equality among classes (though not individuals!) with regards to property and wealth.
- Sphere democracy contributes to fair and harmonious globalisation, which enriches, rather than levels, national and regional diversity. Sphere democracy makes easier adopting and disseminating the following supplemental staples of diversity: a) artificial language Esperanto as a language for international communication; b) a single global religion as a synthesis of modern world religions; c) regional unions of nation-states erasing a frontiers between them, but not distinctions; d) new, multi-polar world order.
- Sphere youth mass movements, i.e. new non-violent youth movements organised by employment spheres and aiming at realisation of appropriate sociocultural projects, can trigger off a formation of sphere classes identity and sphere democracy. These movements will prepare, on a mass scale, pre-conditions for sphere democracy. To head the movements, youth leaders are needed, who are educated, on a competitive basis, in appropriate universities, which can be called "Sphere mass movements leaders universities" or " Schools of the presidents ". (As similar university I spend now occupations on sociology and politology with the students.)
- The transition from a branch to a sphere organization of power, and then to social reproduction balanced on private and state ownership, will allow for rises in labour productivity and rates of socioeconomic development of any country by, in my estimation, a factor of 2 up to 10, by means of the mobilization and harmonization of organizational resource. These are the efficiencies of sphere democracy.
Sphere democracy combines the best features of the social state and lawful state, civil and informational society. It is adequate to a global informational civilisation. Harmonising power and politics, it harmonises society, ensuring its prosperity and victory over total disharmony. Such is the organizational mechanism of sociocultural technology, expressed in general terms.
Harmonisation of employment structures is the glue, that holds together sociocultural technology, connecting all its dimensions and stages. For a society, be it a city, country or the world in general, this is harmonisation of employment of four sphere classes of population or the social structure's harmonisation. For a person, this is harmonisation of a person's employment as harmonisation of the person's structure, composed of a person's sphere needs and abilities. For a family, this is harmonisation of family structure, composed of the sphere components of its reproduction. The same applies to businesses, branches, regions, cities, countries. For a state, this is the harmony between power structures, consisting in equal power distribution between population's four sphere classes. A change of employment/activity represents the most important method for employment's harmonisation on all levels, from individuals to society spheres. The problem of employment change, however, is so complex that it would require a separate study going beyond this small book.
The link between the diametrical sphere structures, that of population and of a person, is the core of sociocultural technology. As we explained above, the sphere structure of population is composed of four sphere classes, which are qualitatively different from traditional branch classes and professional groups in that they are permanent, rather than transient; united and harmonious, rather than antagonistic; socially oriented, rather than self-interested. onLY SPHERE CLASSES ENSURE JUSTICE AND HARMONY IN SOCIETY. only sphere classes form a fair and harmonious social structure, ensuring justice and harmony in the state, power, democracy, and resources distribution. Sphere classes are impossible without a person's sphere structure, composed of four kinds of person's sphere necessities and abilities, corresponding with four spheres of social reproduction. onLY A PERSON'S SPHERE NECESSITIES AND ABILITIES ENSURE JUSTICE AND HARMONY IN A PERSON, THE PERSON'S SUPREME QUALITY. SOCIETY'S HARMONY STARTS WITH A PERSON'S HARMONY. The sphere structures of population and those of a person are as similar as macro- and micro- world. They do not exist without each other. Sphere class identification and structurization in population can happen only on the basis of a person's sphere structurization and identification, and vice versa. These are two sides of a single global sociocultural process, which is just beginning now.
In a society that only recently emerged from its industrial phase, branch structures continue to dominate both in the society and in persons as narrow-scope "one-dimensional" specialists. History and modernity show that branch classes and a persons, and branch processes and structures corresponding with them, do not ensure justice and harmony in the institutions of the state and family. What they do is only create some resources and pre-conditions for harmony. only the information/network society tackles people's and a person's sphere structure, which forms the basis for solving the problem of people's and a person's harmonisation and prosperity. So, sociocultural technology is born by and for this society. As a theory adequate for the society, TetraSociology offers the society sociocultural technology as a new practice of harmonisation and a new social movement, to make itself known soon.
Sociocultural technology ELIMINATES VIOLENCE IN THE STRUGGLE for sphere structures of power and resources distribution; it accepts only NON-VIOLENT FORMS OF STRUGGLE. This does not mean that sociocultural technology is conflict-free. Operating in the field of total branch disharmony, which is also a field of total conflict, it separates positive, innovative conflicts from the negative, violent, destructive ones. Conflict solving through sociocultural technology is based on identifying the causes in these coordinates/dimensions: resources/statics, processes/dynamics, structures/structuratics, states/genetics.
This is an outline of sociocultural technology, a description of which concludes TetraSociology's theoretical chapter. The paragraphs to follow contain a final figure of coordinates, a table of TetraSociology structure and its relation to globalisation, belief and new racism is opened.
 Morgachev V.N. The Forms and Methods of Territorial Management in USA and Canada. Moscow, 1987, p.53, 55.
 Zoi L.N. Practical Konflictology. Moscow, 2001, p.53-59. In this book the widest classification of the conflicts, in many respects close to a TetraSociology is given.