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Harmony Forum

Peace from Harmony
African culture for harmonious civilization

Netugba Wesseh



 

Autobiography of Mr. Netugba Wesseh

 

Born unto the union of the Late Mr. Peter C. Wesseh and Mrs. Annie W. Wesseh o­n June 12, 1975 in Flewroken Town, Gbeapo District, River Gee County, Republic of Liberia; I Commenced formal education in 1980 in my home town's school, Flewroken Public School. After completion of elementary in 1986, I was enrolled in African Independent Churches of Africa Elementary and Junior High from 1987 to 1988 in Kanweaken City, Gbeapo District, River Gee County and Mark Tuleh Wilson Junior and Senior High School from 1989 to 1990 in Zwedru City, Grand Gedeh County where I obtained a junior high school certificate of West African Examinations Council. In 1994, I completed high school in Pleebo High School, Pleebo City, Maryland County. Because of the civil war, I sought refugee in the Ivory Coast from 1994-1998. During my refugee life, I obtained a Business Certification from the Tabou Technical Education Center, a programmed sponsored by the UNHCR and implemented by German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), an international organization. I'm presently a student of the University of Liberia. I served in many capacities as secretary both in social and religious groups. A civil servant at the Ministry of Education or the Republic of Liberia as Secretary, Volunteer Peace Representative and Peace Pal Coordinator of World Peace Prayer Society, Headquarters in USA and Sunday School and Children Ministry Teacher at the Assembly of God Church Clara Town in Monrovia. I'm a member of a number of associations, including the Public Administration Association of the University of Liberia and the Civil Service Association of Liberia.

 

Peace for Harmony

Thursday, September 27, 2007

 

Day and night o­ne seeks all his needs and demands to be satisfied for which he tails. With all his efforts, are these satisfied or will they be satisfied? o­ne answers no and another answers yes. If the later is correct, then when will they be satisfied, or if the former then why? Either raises more questions than answers and man's needs and wants increase day by day. This than makes o­ne to believe that there always exist conflict or imbalance atmosphere within man, which he/she struggles to overcome. Some are trying to obtain some level of in-ward-peace. Those individuals that are trying will most likely transmit same to others through their thoughts and actions. In this case, they serve as role model to those who don't transmit peace because they themselves don't enjoy peace. Is it possible to have peace in this trouble world? A world full of persistence battle fields of arms and nuclear bombs; a battle field of ownership of land and boundaries; a battle filed for power/authority/supremacy in space; a battle field for economic dominance; a battle field in science and technology, etc.

 

How can we have peace in the mist of mistrust and suspicions of o­ne another? How can there be peace in unfair distribution of natural resources? Many answers are required. Many from time of old have devoted their time to crafting instruments, convention, protocol or agreement but yet their effort seems futile because the search for peace continues. o­ne may say those documents were irrelevant, because they were not well crafted, another may say they were well crafted but the will to do was lacking. Be as it may, the question is, will there be peace in this trouble world. Individual, family, community, society, nation and the world seeks peace. How can it be achieved? Individual-in-ward peace I supposed is cardinal to the attainment of peace in the family, community, society, nation and the world at large. Individual peace can be transmitted to o­ne another and can gradually spread which lays the ground for harmonious relations. It is not easy to reach this point and I believed it does not come easily.

 

To have peace and have a harmonious relationship, o­ne must be willing to make sacrifices especially o­n self denial, to let go some things, seeking the interest of others, and to get what is needed too, as we live in an interdependence world or a global village. Those who have still want, and those who lack also want. There must be interactions of people of different conditions or ideologies to get their wants in the absence of global peace. In order to interact, some degree of individual in-ward-peace must be exhibited. It may gradually development from individual, to family, society, community, nation and the world at large. It seems ludicrous for o­ne to make peace while he/she has no Individual-in-ward peace. This peace I believed is divine so all should pray to obtain it from the Supranational o­ne. Our share of daily peace will create a good environment for today, and the future generation.

 

May everyone seek in-ward-peace! May everyone transmit in-ward-peace through their thoughts and actions! May we have peace and harmony in a trouble world! May Peace Prevail o­n Earth!

 

Netugba Wesseh


Peace Rep/WPPS Monrovia, Liberia

Secretary Liberian National Commission for UNESCO, Ministry of Education; Addres: P.O. Box 9012, Monrovia, Liberia; Home address: Peugeot Garage Freeport of Monrovia Bushrod Island Monrovia, Liberia Cell: 231-7-474-522/231-6-474-522
Email:
netugbawesseh@yahoo.com

------------------------------------------------

 

Mussie Hailu

 



Biography of Mr. Mussie Hailu

 

Mussie Hailu was born in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, where he received both his elementary and high school education. He then studied international relations and political science, management and philosophy abroad.

 

He has served o­n voluntary basis in many international and national organizations and associations as adviser, Board Member, President and Representative in Africa, among which are United World Colleges, United Religions Initiatives, United Nations Association, Global Family, World Citizen Association, World Peace Society, Goi Peace Foundation, Global Peoples Assemble Network. Asthma Council, Peace Council, Youth for World Peace, Hunger Free World, Youth Forum for World Food Summit, Peace and Love Federation. He is also a member of many international movements like Amnesty International, Green Movement, Green Peace, Friends of the Earth, o­ne World etc.

 

He is an active member of the National Committee for International Year of Volunteers. He also works very closely with United Nations Volunteer Office in organizing every year the "International Volunteers Day". In partnership with UNV office he initiated "Volunteer of the Year Award" in order to create awareness of volunteerism in Ethiopia and to encourage others to follow the deep vision and growing momentum of volunteerism. This award is the first award in its kind in the country and it will be given every year. Gashie Abera Molla is the first personality to receive this award. Mussie currently works as a Representative of HOPE'87 to Ethiopia, ECA and OAU. He is also a Representative of the World Federation for United Nations Associations to ECA and OAU.

 

He was appointed to the post of Lifetime Deputy Governor of the American Biographical Research Institute by the Board of Directors of the American Biographical Institute and he is accorded the title "The Honorable". He was also given the twenty-first century achievement award for his career achievements and social contribution, which was selected for permanent documentation in 500 leaders of influence designed for biographical reference and inspiration for present-day citizens of the twenty-first century, as well as future generation. It will also be o­n permanent record at the U.S. library of Congress Washington, D.C. His promotion of tolerance, culture of peace, global citizenship, a spirit of cooperation and goodwill has won him international acclaim. He is also appointed as Ambassador for World Peace by an International Peace Organization affiliated with UN Headquarter in New York.

 

At a young age, Mussie Hailu is already an advocate for global cooperation, world citizenship, securing global peace and dialogue for peace among different religions and faith groups. While affiliated with several branches of the United Nations, Mussie does not believe that the task of creating world peace should be left to either the United Nations or governments. The solution is "in the hearts and minds of each individual". According to his view, "we need to beat swords into plowshares. We need to follow the right direction of life which leads us from darkness to light, from despair to hope, from killing to co-existence, from war to peace, from hate to love, and from competition to cooperation".

 

He loves and respects artists and authors and helps them in any way he can. "Artists and authors supply the spark of creativity and the vision of what could be leading us into tomorrow. They wield enormous influence o­n society, setting cultural trends and forwarding new ideas. We need to pay due attention and create a better atmosphere for them."

 

Having attended numerous international conferences, Mussie speaks from experience, "A real meeting requires each o­ne to come out of his/her shell and overcome his/her selfishness. A real meeting requires that each o­ne, while remaining loyal to his own conscience and to his own conviction, should aim at discovering what may unite us, without measuring sacrifices, to work together for the greater well-being of humankind and mother nature". Like Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Mussie's dream is that "young and old, irrespective of race, social status, beliefs and cultures to join there hands, minds and hearts in an unprecedented universal celebration of life".

 

Many people consider this dynamic young leader as extraordinary net-worker for peace o­n international matters. He is clearly an asset for Africa. His initiative include a "Declaration of Peace" distributed worldwide during the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. This declaration was intended to encourage people to make a personal commitment to stand for global peace, human rights, environmental & animal protection and International Unity.

 

He is elected fellow of the International Biographical Association by unanimous decision of the board sitting at Cambridge, England and accorded the title FIBA. For his achievements and services in many areas, he also received numerous awards, medals and Certificate of Merits.

 

"May Peace Prevail o­n Earth" is his motto. Asked, as why he uses this as his motto he said, "It is my prayer. It is my wish. It is part of my life. It is the air I want to breathe and I think it is the air the world wants to breathe. As it is stated in the preamble of UNESCO, 'since war begins in the minds of men, it is in the mind of men defenses must be constructed'. The way and how I see this, both peace and violence are the products of the human mind it is from the human mind that a sense of responsibility to act and think in a peaceful manner will develop. We all need to plant a seed of peace and hope in our mind. Through the prayer of 'May Peace Prevail o­n earth', we can overcome evil with good, falsehood with truth, hatred with love, anger with tolerance and war with peace".

 

He is a strong believer of dialogue among civilized nations, as a means of creating better future for all. He was o­ne of the panelist, at a conference organized at the UN headquarter in New York along with Dan Quay Le the former President of US, Leach Walesa Noal, peace prize laureate and former president of Poland, H.E Assoumani Azazi, president of Comoros and other known personalities. Regarding the importance of dialogue among civilized nations, he said, "as we are living together o­n this planet earth, no matter what place, situation, or circumstance each of us may find ourselves as individuals, our existence has a special meaning. Each of us has a special role to play throughout our daily lives. Differences of color and place of birth are trivial things. What is important is that we recognize ourselves as a citizen of the world. o­ne of the most important mission for humanity at this stage must be to bring people together as o­ne with the shared goal of creating a peaceful world for all to live in. We need to develop a conscience that transcends all differences among nations, ethnic groups, races and religious beliefs and opinions through dialogue. It is my deepest believe that dialogue will give birth to a great wave of human energy directed towards world peace, development and unity in this century."

 

He strongly believes in character education, as a means to create a good citizen o­n this subject. "A culture of peace above all is a question of value, attitude, individual and collective behaviors, which gives rise to and incarnate the spirit of peace. So, unless we shape our young generation with good character education our world would not have any future. We need to unleash the spirit of our young generation in the right direction. People expect schools to not o­nly make children smart but to make them good, to turn out good citizens and leaders, character education addresses that expectation. It helps shape citizens who want to use their knowledge to help and not hurt others. It precludes the bullying, cheating, disruptive behaviors and vandalism that takes up so much time and energy away from the enterprise of teaching."

 

Mussie wrote several articles o­n different global issues and pioneered a number of goodwill initiatives. He has also given lectures in different parts of the world o­n global peace, family value, human relationship and o­n other similar issues. He was the engine for the peace monument, which is erected at the Organization of African Unity (OAU).

 

Peace Message sent from Hon. Mussie Hailu of Ethiopia

on behalf of all Africans at home and abroad

 

The desire for peace is universal, but its attainment is not so easy. To bring peace and reconciliation we need to focus o­n what are the root cause of the conflict and obstacles to peace. We also need to ask our self what is the best methodology and what are the best practices should be applied that will lead us to peace. Both peace and violence are the products of human mind, and it is from the human mind that a sense of responsibilities to think and act in peaceful manner will develop The first step we need to make as individual is, each and every o­ne of us needs to exert all our effort to be a peaceful person. We need to acknowledge that world peace is o­nly possible when we start to make peace within ourselves, families and in our respective communities. Peace is a total sum of a collective effort. It is not something which is given by a certain body. It is something we all need to be stake holders. We need to strongly emphasize o­n the need of generating a culture of peace and constructive dialogue from the grassroots up by mainstreaming peace education, interfaith dialogue, cultivating conflict resolution skill and reconciliation; as conflict prevention and peace building requires effective engagement and partnerships by all stake holders.

 

Religion has a paramount role to play and it has now become an important topic o­n the agenda of our world and policy makers and United Nations are become more aware of the role of religions in conflict prevention, peace-building and reconciliation. Religious leaders like Archbishop Desmond M Tutu, traditional leaders, the African Elders and former heads of Africa like H.E. Nelson Mandela and H.E. Kenneth David Kounda and others have a major role to play in Africa in the area of mediation, conflict resolution, and reconciliation. African Union needs to set up a platform for them. We deeply need to be concerned about the conflicts that is going o­n in some part of Africa countries, mistrust, use of violence, illicit trafficking of small arms, organized crimes, HIV/AIDS and the crisis in Darfur; To solve these problems as African we all need to work together in partnership.

 

We need to have a common vision for a better and peaceful Africa. Africa problem can o­nly be solved by African themselves. To this effect we, Africans at home and abroad, need to Commit our self to work with our respective government, the African Union, Civil Society and regional organizations to promote a culture of peace, interfaith harmony, constructive dialogue among nations, reconciliation, trust building and partnership; Commit to support policies and program that will promote peace, security, reconciliation, good governance, democracy, foster development and stability in Africa Commit our self to promote dialogue as a principle method to respond to conflict and prevent violence at all levels of society Promote, advocate and defend a culture of gender equality and partnership for a common vision

 

Good leadership and good governance are of paramount importance for the continent's future, as they are at the heart of sustainable development and the alleviation of poverty. Many Africans recognize the value of these essential elements and are making good governance an urgent priority for the continent's development agenda. Africans are working hard to take their future into their own hands and as a result of this a new wind of hope is blowing in Africa. The continent is stirring with a spirit of renaissance that calls to all Africans, including those in the Diaspora, to be stakeholders in the process of creating a better Africa. The African renaissance must emerge as a real partnership of understanding and dialogue, trust building and common vision, and commitment and solid action among all Africans at home and abroad. Through this collaborative effort, the Africa we seek to build will be self-sufficient and independent.

 

Our continent will be able to stand strong and united, addressing its challenges so future generations will inherit, with pride, a peaceful land rich with many possibilities and fully able to contribute to the global family. The fulfilling the Millennium Development Goals can address most of the root cause of conflict and promote human security in Africa. Faith based and interfaith organization could also play a role in mobilizing people for the achievement of MDGs In this opportunity I would like to call upon all the members states of the UN to live up to their promises in achieving the MDGs by 2015. This is o­ne of the greatest gifts that they could give to humanity, and future prosperity and stability to all citizens. Commitments should not remain mere pledges. We must match our words with our deeds Africa is rising. It will continue to rise o­nly if Africans from all walks of lifeincluding former heads of state, traditional rulers, and others who are at home and abroadwork together, side by side, to give unconditional service to the development of our beloved continent under the AU's banner. It is time for the Africa renaissance.

Inspired by the spirit of our Founding Fathers, we Africans need a common vision and commitment if we are to build a peaceful Africa. Let us all work together toward an African renaissance.

As it is stated in the new African Union anthem, "Let us all unite and celebrate together the victories won for our liberation. Let us dedicate ourselves to rise together to defend our liberty and unity. O sons and daughters of Africa let us make Africa the Tree of Life."


May peace prevail in our hearts; May peace prevail in our minds; May peace prevail in our families; May peace prevail in our countries; May peace prevail in our continents; and May Peace Prevail o­n Earth.

 

Mussie Hailu


Peace Rep/WPPS, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Chairman of African Diaspora Foundation, Board Chairman of Interfaith Peace building Initiative, and Regional Coordinator of URI for Africa;
Address: P.O.Box 7785, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;
Email:
mussiepeace@yahoo.co.uk

-------------

02/10/07

 


----------------------------
Ugonna Wachuku

 
Great Place: A Soulful Celebration of the Beautiful South African People. - Publish America, Inc.:2005
 
The Great Place is an original combination of fiction, history, children's story, poetry, captivating folklore and nonfiction - told in a heartily capturing dramatic and theatrical style of creative rendition in soulful celebration of Mandela and the beautiful South African people. Also, the book encourages South Africans to fight HIV/AIDS with the same winning spirit they fought apartheid! "Above all, I came to realize that I had fallen in love with a people and their struggle for a peaceful recognition of the worth and dignity inherent in their human essence." Indeed, The Great Place is Ugonna Wachuku's creative and soulful contribution towards spreading the universal lessons and inspiration of South Africa's historical and contemporary experience. This book is touchingly all about how humanity can lovingly, humanely, compassionately and sparingly live o­n earth with o­ne another!
            THE GREAT PLACE
            A Soulful Celeberation of the
            Beautiful South African People
            ISBN 1-4137-4008-1
            has been released by my US publisher - Publish
            America, Inc.:  http://www.publishamerica.com/books/6111 ;     Softcover [$9.95]
------------------------
 Dear Ugonna Wachuku,
Best congratulations for your new book: THE GREAT PLACE. May it widely spread its message of PEACE and harmonious relations between people and nations, and be a great success.
With all best wishes,
Ada Aharoni
IFLAC
 
[IFLAC]  Digest Number 1102, September 10, 2005
 
------------ 

UNICEF
about northern Uganda s children
 
Information of Africa Youth Ministries   Uganda , aym@utlonline.co.ug
 
KAMPALA, 24 May (IRIN) - Renewed fighting, killings and abductions by rebels in northern Uganda has forced 10,000 more children to spend their nights o­n the streets of major towns in the region, the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) said in a report.
 
The agency said the new "night commuters" - the name for the children who trek nightly to the relative safety of urban centres because of the threat of attacks and abductions by rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) - joined another 30,000 who already had been sleeping o­n the streets, under shop verandas and in bus parks.

"Figures for late April stand at approximately 40,000 night commuters in total, up from about 30,000 in the previous month, owing to renewed LRA attacks, killings and abductions in the region," the report, issued o­n 18 May, stated.

According to UNICEF estimates, more than 20,000 children were abducted between 1986 and December 2004, and half of them had been taken captive since June 2002. Many of the children were forced into combat and sexual slavery. Last year, some 3,500 former abductees passed through civilian reception centres in the affected districts. The number of children killed, conceived or born in LRA captivity, however, remains unknown.

"A political deadlock and intensified LRA attacks in recent weeks following the expiry of a ceasefire have contributed significantly to the high numbers of internally displaced persons," the report explained.

In December, the mediators attempted to bring together Ugandan officials and the LRA to seek a peaceful end to the war, which has displaced over 1.4 million people and forced them to live in more than 200 camps scattered across eight conflict-affected districts, namely Gulu, Kitgum, Pader, Lira, Apac, Soroti, Katakwi and Kaberamaido. Last-minute hitches prevented the signing of a draft ceasefire, and the government instead resumed military operations against the insurgents.

On Friday, the army claimed it had killed a senior LRA commander who was a member of the rebel team that met government representatives in a bid to start peace talks. UNICEF decried the fact that children and women in northern Uganda had continued to endure the harsh consequences of a 19-year conflict that has pitted LRA rebels against the Uganda People's Defence Forces, the government army.

"The child-centric conflict has wrought unprecedented violence, uncertainty and poverty to a region o­nce famed as Uganda's 'food basket', wrecking havoc and depriving the local population, mostly children and women, of their rights to access basic healthcare, safe water, education, protection and shelter," the agency said.

The report said nearly a quarter (23 percent) of primary-school age children were out of school, while half (50 percent to 60 percent) of the student body at primary schools in Gulu, Kitgum, Pader, Lira and Apac districts were still displaced.

In recent months, UNICEF added, some 77 cases of cholera were recorded in the huge internally displaced persons (IDP) camp of Pabbo and the neighbouring Gengari and Parabongo camps. Despite the progress that has been made to provide access to safe water, about o­ne-half of the IDPs in the affected districts have access to less than five litres per person per day.

The shadowy LRA began fighting ostensibly to replace the government of President Yoweri Museveni with an administration based o­n the Biblical Ten Commandments, but not much else is known about the insurgency, as it rarely makes public statements.

The group has been widely accused of abducting thousands of young boys and girls for recruitment into its ranks or to be turned into "wives" for LRA commanders. LRA fighters have often carried out attacks in several eastern districts as well.

[ENDS]

__________
 
Albert Kunihira
 
Help to Uganda Children traumatized by the 19 years war! 

Sun, 1 May 2005

Dear Folks,
 
Greetings. I am wondering whether there any o­ne in this forum (IFLAC) with information o­n free resources o­n Psycho Social Counseling & Support for Children affected by war. This can be books, CD's, DVD's & Videos. I am working with Children heavily traumatized by the o­n-going 19 years war in
Northern Uganda . You may also visit our website at www.aymu.orgto learn more about this conflict.
 
Yours,
 
Albert Kunihira
Country Director/Peace Ambassador
Africa Youth Ministries, Uganda
P.O. Box 20029,
Kampala-Uganda
T: +256-77-200902/+256-71-200009
F: +256-41-287151
E:
admin@aymu.orgor Albert@aymu.org
I:
www.aymu.org
_____________________________
 
 Stephanie Nolen

Too scared to sleep, too young to fight

 
Stephanie Nolen reports o­n Uganda 's forgotten civil war
Monday, April 25, 2005 Updated at
Globe and Mail Update

Ariaga , Uganda Jimmy Ocen leaves home at dusk, when the crickets are starting to shriek in the mango trees. He walks, scuffing his third-hand sneakers past low houses and small fields of spinach and corn, two kilometres into town. His twin sister, their two little brothers and four small cousins have to be chided to keep up.

Jimmy, 12, sometimes stops to look around at the neighbours' yards or to scratch the scabs o­n his knees. But he doesn't linger the equatorial night comes quickly and he must arrive at the shelter by dark. Jimmy hasn't slept at home with his parents since he was seven years old. Every night for five years, he has walked to town and found a place to sleep in nearby Gulu: a church courtyard, a bank doorway, the floor under a bed in a hospital ward. This is the land where the worst bedtime fears come true. There really are bad guys, and they really do come to take children away. An estimated 20,000 children have been abducted at gunpoint in northern Uganda , most in the middle of the night.

The children are taken away to fight in the rebel Lord's Resistance Army, which is holding the entire civilian population hostage with fear and savagery. Two million people live in the region's wretched refugee camps because they are afraid to stay home, and every night Jimmy and thousands of other children leave their homes to sleep somewhere safer. Jimmy knows it is strange, and he would rather stay home. But he also knows he can't stay.

"In the daytime, the rebels are afraid to come but they come in the dark," he says. Just last week, Jimmy's cousin Justin Ojara, also 12, stayed home for the first time in five years: He had a bad case of diarrhea and was too weak to make the walk. As if they knew there was a child for the taking, the rebels smashed in the door that night and stole what they could, taking Justin and the extended family's three men to carry their loot. The men were released a few days later, but the boy was not, likely taken to what people here call "the bush."

That term currently encompasses all of the north but a handful of swollen towns. The displacement and death from the conflict in northern Uganda equals or exceeds what is going o­n in Sudan 's infamous Darfur region, but this conflict has never attracted a single resolution from the United Nations Security Council.

Instead, President Yoweri Museveni calls it an internal matter that he will have sorted out imminently. Until recently, the donors who provide more than half the government's budget have taken him at his word. The war pits the President's considerable army against the LRA. The conflict's roots stem from the mid-1980s, when Mr. Museveni, a southerner who headed a rebel movement of his own, seized power. Isolated and cut out of power, the north mounted a rebellion and Joseph Kony, a charismatic young man who said the Holy Spirit spoke to him, emerged as its leader.

But when support for the rebellion died out among the local Acholi, Mr. Kony turned his sights o­n his own people. Unable to draw recruits, he began to abduct children to carry his guns. For the past 18 years, he has carried out an insurgency that has shattered all semblance of normal life in the north.

Only in recent months have there been the first tentative steps toward negotiation, but there is still no truce. The rebels seized people right o­n the edge of town last week, and hacked off the lips and ears of a few others to remind everyone they are still out there. And so a few children who had hoped to risk the nights at home instead resumed their nightly commute.

Jimmy Ocen and his siblings sleep in a shelter, a big warehouse subdivided for boys and girls. The building was erected by the African Medical and Research Foundation, o­ne of several international aid agencies working here, to give the children some supervision. When they sleep out in the churchyards and the schools, there are frequent reports of abuse. But at the same time, these agencies worry that they are formalizing a pattern that is causing the disintegration of Acholi society. When the conflict is at its worst, an estimated 40,000 children sleep away from home.

The worst-affected children are, of course, those taken by the rebels and used for sex or battle. But these days no child here escapes the impact of the war. They are either crammed into camps, unable to go to school or play, or else they commute, walking four or five kilometres to school, coming home and then leaving again for the night shelters spending 20 hours a day or more away from home. "It breaks the link with the parents, who have very little time with them," said Nichson Kilama, co-ordinator of a Médecins sans frontières (Doctors Without Borders) shelter where 4,000 kids sleep each night in giant tents.

"They are losing the guidance their parents should give them. In our culture, you gather at the fireplace and you tell stories of things from a long time ago, a problem that happened and how you solved it." Mr. Kilama watches a sturdy five-year-old come out of the dark and in the shelter gate carrying his wool blanket o­n his head. "What if this war goes o­n for five more years?" he asks. "What link will that child have to his parents?"

The parents are also frustrated. "It is very strange and painful to be separated from your children," said Jacob Opira, a 43-year-old peasant farmer who is Jimmy's foster father. "You don't know what problems they will face while they are gone from you. And then they come home with infections, coughs and scabies they catch in the shelter, but we have no money to buy medicine to treat them." The children begin to imagine themselves old beyond their years, and feel they no longer need their parents.

"It's a huge problem: When a child is separated from a parent, there is a loss of guidance, and when these children go they may start misbehaving, doing things they would not do outside the supervision of parents," Mr. Opira said. Nevertheless, he intends to keep sending his children away while the war continues. "The problems a child will face when they are abducted are much worse than what they will face sleeping away. Yes, you see your child getting spoiled. But with the rebels, they could be killed," he said.



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