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APJ Abdul Kalam


Dynamics of Unity of Nations

Address to the European Parliament

At Strasbourg

25 April 2007


"Confluence of civilizations

is definitely possible"


Good morning, Ladies and Gentlemen.


I am delighted to be with the Honourable Members of European Parliament o­n the occasion of the Golden Jubilee year of the European Union. When I am with you friends, I was thinking, what thoughts I can share with you. India as a democratic nation has the experience of providing leadership to over o­ne billion people with multi-language, multi-culture and multi-religious systems. I wish to share this experience with you.


European Union for peace and prosperity


European civilization has a unique place in human history. Its people were valiantly engaged in the adventure of exploring the planet earth resulting in the discovery of many ideas and systems. Europe has seen the birth of pioneers in science leading to technologies. Europe was the theatre of conflicts for hundreds of years among and between the nations including the two world wars. Now with this backdrop and dynamics, you have established European Union with a vision for peace and prosperity for the entire region. European Union has become an example for connectivity among nations, probably with no possibility of war, leading to lasting regional peace.




Before I started out o­n my journey to Europe, I was thinking, why are Europe and India unique and natural partners? Do we share a common history and heritage, possibly in future, a common destiny? What I found was astonishing: the depth and vitality of our inter-connectedness, by language, by culture, by ancient beliefs, ideologies and the movement of people have stood the test of time. This has matured into a very strong bondage through a sustained trade and intellectually satisfying collaboration in many areas of science and technology.


Unity in Diversity


India is a country which has over the years learnt to evolve and maintain a unique unity amongst diversity. Similarly, the greatest contribution of European Union is that, you have demonstrated to the world, that it is possible to build a strong union of nations without compromising national identities. It has become an inspirational model and an example to emulate for every region in the world. The European Union and India support a social form of economic development and encourage a model of growth with equity. Both are conscious of the need for growth to respect the environment and make it sustainable for future generations. With this valuable experience of centuries behind India and European Union, we can bring together a doctrine of global cooperation built over the foundation of regional collaborations and core competencies of nations.

European Union and India radiate a message to the world that regional cooperation and inter-regional collaboration will lead to a win-win situation for all, so that we can have a politically and socio-economically emergent civilization. Our contribution will be judged if we could, before the 21st century is over, make all regions transform into happy unions leading to the emergence of world of unions. In this context, I am reminded of the dream of the Indian poet

who articulated 3000 years back in the Tamil classic:

which means "I am a world citizen, Every citizen is my own kith and kin"

With this background, I have brought from India, a message, a message to start three important Indo-European missions which can contribute to global peace and prosperity. These missions, I am putting forth based o­n India's experience and the dynamics of European Union.

1.Evolution of enlightened society – for evolving a citizen with value system and leading to prosperous and peaceful world.

2.Leading to Energy Independence – A three dimensional approach for energy choice towards realizing clean planet earth.

3.World Knowledge Platform – for synergizing the core competence of European Union and India in certain areas for providing solutions to critical issues like water, healthcare and capacity building.


Towards a cohesive society


When nations join together to build a cohesive society, it is necessary to ensure that benefits of development encompass all sections of the society. World over, poverty, illiteracy, un-employment and deprivation are driving forward the forces of anger and violence. These forces link themselves to some earlier real or perceived historical enmities, tyrannies injustice, inequities, ethnic issues and religious fundamentalism flowing into an outburst of extremism worldwide. Both India and European Union have witnessed and are witnessing the unsavory acts of certain misguided sections of society. We have to jointly address ourselves to the root causes of such phenomena for finding lasting solutions for promoting peace.


Righteousness is the beginning:


What we need is a carrier of eternal goodness and wholesomeness in human conduct, which is "Righteousness". As we say in India:



Where there is righteousness in the heart

There is beauty in the character.

When there is beauty in the character,

There is harmony in the home.

When there is harmony in the home.

There is an order in the nation.

When there is order in the nation,

There is peace in the world.


This is true, for the whole world. When we need peace in the world, we need order in the nation; we need harmony in the home, whether in Europe or in India or in any part of the world, the origin is righteousness in the heart. How do we evolve righteousness, in the hearts of every citizen of the world?


I.Evolution of Enlightened Society


With this spirit of righteousness in the heart, dear Honorable Members, I would like to put forth to this important gathering, a methodology for evolving a happy, prosperous and peaceful society in our planet, which I call as "Evolution of Enlightened society". I have shared these thoughts with many intellectuals in national and international spheres. How do we create such an enlightened society, which will have three components (a) Education with value system (b) Religion transforming into spirituality and (c) Economic development for societal transformation. Let us discuss.


a.Education with value system:


We have seen that the seeds of peace in the world have their origin in the righteousness in the heart of every individual. Such righteous citizens lead to the evolution of enlightened society. Education with value system has to be so designed that the righteousness in the heart is developed in young minds. That should be the mission of education. The prime learning environment is five to seventeen years of age. This reminds me of an ancient Greek teacher's saying, "Give me a child for seven years; afterwards, let God or devil take the child. They cannot change the child". This indicates the power of great teachers and what they can inculcate in the young minds. Parents and teachers must inculcate moral leadership amongst children. It requires the ability to have insights into the uniqueness and universality of human consciousness. True education is the acquisition of enlightened feelings and enlightened powers to understand daily events and to understand the permanent truth linking man, to his environment, human and planetary.

While I was in college, I remember the lectures given by the highest authority of a Jesuit institution Rev Father Rector Kalathil of St. Joshep's college, Tiruchirappalli, Southern India. Every week o­n Monday, he will take a class for an hour. He used to talk about good human beings present and past and what makes a good human being. In this class he used to give lectures o­n personalities such as Buddha, Confucius, St. Augustine, Califa Omar, Mahatma Gandhi, Einstein, Abraham Lincoln and moral stories linked to our civilizational heritage. In the moral science class, Father Kalathil used to highlight the best aspect of, how the great personalities have been evolved as good human beings through parental care, teaching and companionship of great books. Even though these lessons were given to me in 1950's during my college days, they inspire me even today. It is essential that in the schools and colleges, lectures are given by great teachers of the institution o­nce in a week for o­ne hour o­n civilizational heritage and derived value system. This may be called as Moral Science Class that will elevate the young minds to love the country, to love the other human beings and elevate them to higher planes. I have suggested this methodology to educationists in my country. European Union may like to consider evolving a system that would enable a student to imbibe these fundamental traits for the benefit of all.

Now, let me take up the area that is transforming religion into spiritual force. Many in the world believe, it is a difficult mission. I would like to share an experience that I have witnessed which has convinced me that it is possible.


b.Religion Transforming into Spirituality: Universal Mind


Religion has two components, theology and spirituality. Even though theology is unique to every religion, the spiritual component spreads the value to be inculcated by human beings for promoting a good human life and welfare of the society, while pursuing the material life. I would like to share an experience how the religion and science came together in a big mission.

It was during early 1960's, the founder of Indian Space Research Programme Prof. Vikram Sarabhai with his team, had located a place technically most suited for space research after considering many alternatives. The place called Thumba in Kerala, was selected for space research as it was near the magnetic equator, ideally suited for ionospheric and electrojet research in upper atmosphere. I was fortunate to work with Prof Vikram Sarabhai for about eight years.

The major challenge for Prof Vikram Sarabhai was to get the place in a specific area. As was normal, Prof. Vikram Sarabhai approached the Kerala Government administrators first. After seeing the profile of the land and the sea coast, the view expressed was that, thousands of fishing folks lived there, the place had an ancient St Mary Magdalene Church, Bishop's House and a school. Hence it would be very difficult to give this land and they were willing to provide land in an alternative area. Similarly the political system also opined that it would be a difficult situation due to the existence of important institutions and the concern for people who were to be relocated. However there was a suggestion to approach the o­nly person who could advise and help. That was the Bishop "Rev Father Peter Bernard Pereira". Prof Vikram Sarabhai, approached the Bishop o­n a Saturday evening, I still remember. The meeting between the two turned out to be historical. Many of us witnessed the event. Rev Father exclaimed, "Oh Vikram, you are asking my children's abode, my abode and God's abode. How is it possible?" Both had a unique quality that they could smile even in difficult situations. Rev Father Peter Bernard Pereira asked Prof. Vikram Sarabhai to come to church o­n Sunday morning at 9.00 AM. Prof. Vikram Sarabhai went to the church again o­n Sunday with his team. At that time the prayer was progressing with the recitation of Bible by Father Pereira. After the prayer was over, the Bishop invited Prof. Vikram Sarabhai to come to the dais. The Rev Father introduced Prof Vikram Sarabhai to the mass, "Dear children, here is a scientist, Prof. Vikram Sarabhai. What do sciences do? All of us experience, including this church, the light from electricity. I am able to talk to you through the mike which is made possible by technology. The treatment to patients by doctors comes from medical sciences. Science through technology enhances the comfort and quality of human life. What do, I do, as a preacher? I pray for you, for your well being, for your peace. In short, what Vikram is doing and what I am doing, are the same – both science and spirituality seek the Almighty's blessings for human prosperity in body and mind. Dear Children, Prof Vikram says, he would build within a year, near the sea-coast, alternative facilities to what we are having. Now dear children, can we give our abode, can we give my abode, can we give the God's abode for a great scientific mission?" There was a total silence, a pin drop silence. Then all of them got up and said 'Amen' which made the whole church reverberate.

That was the church where we had our design centre, where we started rocket assembly and the Bishop's house was our scientists' working place. Later the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) led to the establishment of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) and the space activities transformed into multiple space centers throughout the country. Now this church has become an important centre of learning, where thousands of people learn about the dynamic history of the space programme of India and the great minds of a scientist and spiritual leader. Of course, the Thumba citizens got the well equipped facilities, worshiping place and educational centre in an alternate place at the right time.

When I think of this event, I can see how enlightened spiritual and scientific leaders can converge towards giving reverence to the human life. Of course the birth of TERLS and then VSSC gave the country the capability for launch vehicles, spacecraft and space applications that have accelerated social and economic development in India to unprecedented levels.

Today, among us, Prof Vikram Sarabhai is not there, Rev Peter Bernard Pereira is not there, but those who are responsible for creation and making flowers blossom will themselves be a different kind of flower as described in the Bhagwat Gita: "See the flower, how generously it distributes perfume and honey. It gives to all, gives freely of its love. When its work is done, it falls away quietly. Try to be like the flower, unassuming despite all its qualities". What a beautiful message, to the humanity o­n the purpose of life reflected the spiritual component. Can we bridge the spiritual component of the religions to bring peace to nations and to the world?

I would like to recall o­ne incident which commonly occurs in many parts of my country. I have witnessed this event when I was a young boy (10 yrs). In our house, periodically I used to see three different unique personalities meet. Pakshi Lakshmana Shastrigal, who was the head priest of the famous Rameshwaram temple and a vedic scholar, Rev Father Bodal, who built the first church in Rameshwaram Island and my father who was an Imam in the mosque. All three of them used to sit and discuss the islands problems and find solutions. In addition they built several religious connectivities with compassion. These connectivities quietly spread to others in the island like the fragrance from the flowers. This sight always comes to my mind whenever, I discuss with people o­n Dialogue of religions. India has had this advantage of integration of minds for thousands of years. Throughout the world, the need to have a frank dialogue among cultures, religions and civilizations has been felt now more than ever.

These two instances, what I have narrated give me confidence that religions definitely can be bridged through spiritual components. Whenever I meet the young and experienced in my country. I have narrated these two experiences. Many in my country and world over may have such experiences. We have to spread such "Glad Tidings" to every part of the world.

Now let us discuss the third important component of enlightened society which is to achieve economic development for societal transformation. Let me take my country India as an example, it may be true to many parts of the world.


c. Economic development for societal transformation


Indian Economy is in an ascent phase. There is considerable growth in the manufacturing and service sectors. We have a mission of spreading this economic growth throughout the country including the rural sector. Nearly 220 million people have to be lifted by upgrading their quality of life in both rural and urban areas. Even though the GDP growth indicates our economic growth, people's participation is essential for achieving the required targets. It is essential to ensure that the citizens are empowered with good quality of life encompassing nutritious food, good habitat, clean environment, affordable healthcare, quality education and productive employment, integrated with our value system drawn from civilizational heritage leading to the comprehensive development of the nation that will bring smiles in o­ne billion people. These are indicators for the growth of the National Prosperity Index. To achieve that growth rate, we have identified five areas where India has a core competence for integrated action: (1) Agriculture and food processing (2) Education and Healthcare (3) Information and Communication Technology (4) Infrastructure development such as power, transportation, communication and including Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas (PURA) and (5) Self reliance in critical technologies. We propose to realize the vision of transforming India into a developed nation before 2020 by energizing and igniting the minds of all the 540 million youth of the nation.

So far we have discussed the three dimensional approach of providing value based education, religion transforming into spiritual force and economic development for societal transformation leading to the evolution of an enlightened society. This integrated three dimensional methodology of evolution of enlightened society, will pave the way for peaceful, prosperous, happy nations and thereby a world, free from extremisms and further seeds of extremism. In my website www.presidentofindia.nic.in, I have given how an empowered world body is essential to evolve the nations of enlightened citizens. I will be very happy to exchange thoughts and ideas and action related to this mission with the Honorable members of European Parliament.

Let me now discuss the second mission "Leading to Energy Independence".


II.Leading to Energy Independence


When we analyze the critical problems facing the planet earth today, two important issues come to our minds. First o­ne is the continuous depletion of fossil-material-derived, oil, gas and coal reserves as predicted by World Energy Forum. The second o­ne is the continuous degradation of environment primarily due to extensive use of fossil materials for generating energy. The solution to these problems can be found through energy independence, which I have presented to my country. It may be applicable to many nations.

Energy Independence in India – A Perspective: India has 17% of the world's population, but o­nly about 0.8% of the world's known oil and natural gas resources. Based o­n the progress visualized for the nation during the next two decades, the power generating capacity has to increase to 400,000 MW by the year 2030 from the current 130,000 MW in India. This takes into consideration of energy economies planned and the design and production of energy efficient equipments and systems. Energy independence has got to be achieved through three different sources namely renewable energy (solar, wind and hydro power), electrical power from nuclear energy and bio-fuel for the transportation sector. Energy independence throws very important technological challenges to the world: The solar cell efficiency has to increase from the present 20% to 55% through intensified research o­n CNT (Carbon Nano Tube) based solar cells. For thorium reactors, as it is known, thorium is a non-fissile material. It has to be converted into a fissile material using Fast Breeder Technology. In the Bio-fuel area, the challenge is bio-fuel plantation for higher yield, esterification technologies for the higher output and the modification to automobile power plants. These three research areas definitely need intensive cooperation between Europian Union and India. I would suggest setting up of an "Indo-EU Renewable Energy Development programme" for taking up advanced R&D in all forms of renewable energy leading to the availability of commercial class large scale power plants within the next decade.

Let us now discuss the third mission, called "World Knowledge Platform".


III.World Knowledge Platform


With the Indian experiences of two successful international cooperative ventures from concept to realization and marketing, I would suggest evolution of "World Knowledge Platform" for bringing together the core competence of multiple nations of EU and India in science and technology leading to the development of unique systems for Global applications. "World Knowledge platform" will enable joint design, development, cost effective production and marketing of the knowledge products, systems and services in various domains based o­n the core competence of partner nations to international market. World knowledge platform is a meeting place for science, technology, industry, management and marketing.

Missions of World Knowledge Platform: The convergence of Bio, Nano and IT is expected to touch every area of concern to the humanity. The "World Knowledge Platform" will take up the missions, in some of the areas discussed further, which are of utmost urgency to all of us to make our world a safe, sustainable, peaceful and prosperous place to live:

1.Water: Desalination of sea water using solar energy, channelization, networking of rivers, cost effective safe drinking water.

2.Healthcare: Diagnosis, drug delivery system, development and production of vaccines for HIV/TB, malaria and cardiac diseases, detection and cure of diabetics.

3.Agriculture and Food processing: Increased production of food grain in an environment of reduced land, reduced water and reduced manpower; preservation of food; food processing; cost effective storage and distribution.

4.Knowledge products: Hardware, Software and Networking and Storage Products including handheld micro and nano electronic devices.

5.Transportation systems: Fossil fuel free transportation systems using renewable energies safety systems, hardware and embedded software integration.

6.Habitat: Energy efficient, water efficient, pollution free habitat.

7.Disaster Prediction and Management: Earth quake forecasting, assessing in advance the quantum of rain for particular cloud condition.

8.Capacity Building: Quality human resource development for all the above areas including the development of personnel with world class skills.

European Union represents a wealth of scientific potential with rich culture for research. India has emerged as a leading country with its demonstrated scientific and technological potential in many societal missions and is now in the growth path. Combined strengths of the nations can be utilized for the mutual advantage of both India and EU by joining together as partners in creating the world knowledge platform.




Honorable Members of European Parliament, as we have seen, there is a visible common thread of our dreams and problems. When I am with you, I have a feeling; that there are beautiful solutions from beautiful minds. Beautiful minds generate creativity. This is the common heritage of both India and Europe. Dear Honourable Members of European Union, I have presented three missions: (a) Evolution of enlightened society, (b) Leading to Energy Independence (c) Creating World Knowledge Platform. These Indo-EU missions will definitely reinforce further our strategic partnership and become the foundation for making the change in the life of 1.5 billion people, ultimately leading to confluence of civilizations.

For meeting the challenges of these missions, we can draw the inspiration from the saying of Maharishi Patanjali, about 2,500 years ago "When you are inspired by some great purpose, some extraordinary project, all your thoughts break their bounds. Your mind transcends limitations, your consciousness expands in every direction, and you find yourself in a new, great and wonderful world. Dormant forces, faculties and talents come alive, and you discover yourself to be a greater person by far than you ever dreamt yourself to be."

Dear friends, Let me convey my greetings of o­ne billion people of my country to all the Hon'ble Members of European Union and through you to all the citizens of European Union countries. May God bless you.


The logic and key content of my address are well-expressed by the model-66 of tetranet harmonious thinking, transition to which taken in this ABC of Harmony:



APJ Abdul Kalam, b 1931, is o­ne of the most distinguished scientists of India with the unique honour of receiving honorary doctorates from 42 Universities and institutions from India and abroad. Dr. Kalam became the 11th President of Republic of India o­n 25th July 2002. After five eventful years he demitted office o­n 25th July 2007. The GHA Highest Honorary Title: WORLD HARMONY CREATOR

Address: No 10, Rajaji marg, New Delhi-110011, India

Ph.: 011 23793601; E-mail: apj_at_abdulkalam.com

Web: www.abdulkalam.com, www.peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=95


Leo Semashko


The ABC of Harmony as the ABC of Harmonious Democracy


Democracy of industrialism (the industrial civilization), for all its virtues, especially at the beginning of its evolution, has now exhausted them and is increasingly degenerating into tyranny of the elites, empires, and total corruption as it is recognized by many specialists [139 and others]. 

The great French philosopher Charles Montesquieu, formulated a fundamental law for all, without exception, democracies, "the strength and prosperity of democracy always depends o­n the proper division of classes of the population that have voting rights," [140, 171–172]. He gave the examples of 4 classes of Solon, 6 classes of Servius Tullius, but did not find the "proper" democratic division of the population into classes. It must be noted that and all subsequent industrial history, in all its magnificent democratic prosperity, was powerless in its attempts to embody democratic law of Montesquieu. For this reason, industrial democracy has started rapidly degrading after its exuberant and rapid period of prosperity. There too many well known deplorable facts of this degradation, even in the most democratic countries. Some ineradicable evils of industrial democracy can also be named:

1. It is devoid of any structured and institutionalized actors (classes of the population) of democracy, implying the existence of the o­nly actor: the entire population or people in general. Therefore, it is devoid of the fundamental basis which provides stability and prosperity of democracy – the "proper division into classes of the population" by Montesquieu.

2.Therefore, it ends up as democracy not of the whole population, but o­nly its wealthy part, degenerating, as a result, into elite oligarchies and plutocracies.

3.Therefore, it is limited by the interests of the adult population o­nly and excludes any legal representation of interests of children, whose part ranges from 20 to 50% of the population in different countries.

4.Therefore, its basic political institutions and parties are deprived of the integrity of values. Therefore, they are formed o­n the basis of continuously hostile political interests of various private elites, acting as the centers of conflicts and confrontation between different institutions and branches of power.

Therefore, industrial democracy, in all its forms, including capitalist and socialist o­nes, turns out to be partial, private and disharmonious democracy, which is constantly degrading and eventually degenerates and dies off under the weight of holistic problems that it cannot solve due to its particular and private nature. It considers neither true national interests and priorities, nor people in a whole, reducing it to o­ne of its powerful parts, nor the global interests and sustainable development of the world as a whole.

Self-negation of the industrial democracy is an inevitable point of its global rejection and a radical turn to a fundamentally different, unprecedented for humanity, democracy of harmonious spheral classes of the population. Harmonious democracy is spheral democracy. It is based o­n division of the population into spheral classes according to occupation in o­ne of the four spheres of social production. Harmonious democracy can only be consciously established by every nation and by humanity as a whole, merely basing o­n universal scientific KNOWLEDGE of the foundations of social harmony, provided by the ABC of Harmony. Therefore, the ABC of Harmony is the ABC of Harmonious Democracy and the spiritual key to it. What are the ABC's spiritual truths of harmonious democracy inaccessible for industrial democracy?
1. Harmonious democracy can o­nly be conscious, rather than spontaneous as the industrial o­ne. It may be based o­n the common scientific knowledge of social harmony, the first idea of which is given in the ABC of Harmony.

2. Only conscious (harmoniously educated) spheral classes of the population (cluster of SIOT classes in the ABC of Harmony) can be as the actors of harmonious democracy. According to definition these classes are harmonious and eliminate any kind of antagonism between them. Division of the population into spheral classes – that very "proper division" of people, which provides "stability and prosperity of democracy", along with eternal harmonious peace [41, 1 and 2].

3. Harmonious democracy represents not o­nly the interests of adults but also those of children through the special law of "children's suffrage, executed by parents" [7, see also the special article in the ABC].

4. Harmonious democracy divides all institutions and branches of power into equal representation of each spheral class (equal sharing power among spheral classes), ensuring them and their institutions as the value integrity in harmony and as the difference in the ways of reaching it.

5. Perpetual spiritual source of harmonious democracy can o­nly be found in continuous harmonious education of the population and every individual from early childhood to the end of life [4 and the article in the ABC].

6. Harmonious democracy serves to maximization the social and individual harmony, rather than maximization of profits as it does in the industrial o­ne. Therefore harmonious democracy is humane and holistic, rather than partial and subject to profit, and consequently antihuman as it is in case of industrial democracy.

Advantages of harmonious democracy in comparison with the industrial model-67 are expressed in the following comparative model of tetranet thinking:


Leo M. Semashko, PhD, Philosopher and Sociologist, GHA President. 

Address: St. Petersburg, Russia

Web: www.peacefromharmony.org E-mail: leo.semashko_at_gmail.com


Manijeh Navidnia


Societal Security and Social Harmony


Societal Security was introduced for "the first time by the Copenhagen School as a dimension of national security" [106], but by welcoming the emerging security, different experts of humanities took part in its theoretical processing and thus, the conceptual range of societal security has encompassed an extensive domain regarding which there is still no determinate theoretical consensus. In this regard, sociology is o­ne of claimants and has an enlightening role in defining societal security.

Sociology by portraying today's world as the world where every day the number of the bullets, guns, and weapons is increased, the world where a gap between rich and poor becomes larger every day, the world where young and old, male and female, child and adult are not free of injustice and are faced with the question whether security can be established without regarding inequality, bullying, and hegemony? How come that the world, which technical and technological advances continue to surprise people, is sometimes unable to maintain the most basic aspect of security such as "life safety"? The answer from the point of sociology can be summarized in dichotomization of the world, when humans are divided into two fronts: friend and enemy, rich and poor, powerful or weak, wise and fool, valid and invalid. Dichotomized world that makes a contrast between fully wealthy class and completely poor class is a barrier in understanding the beautiful sights of people, understanding different people and interacting with diverse groups of human. As a result people become easily inclined to the destruction of human beings and killing each other, thus "the present century is characterized by insecurity" [107].

Therefore, from a sociological perspective, it is not possible to product and process security regardless of social context, moreover policy is just o­ne of the aspects of security and by ending its monopoly multiple dimensions of security can be realized [108]. o­n the other hand, increasing opposition between the government and people has revealed a large gap between security of public and national security and has left no way to legitimate justification of seizing power and force tools by governments. Therefore, rethinking security could be posed in the form of a new discourse as "societal security" that is based o­n such principles as being people-centered rather than state-centered (general-based rather than specific-based), being human-oriented rather than power-oriented, equality rather than hegemony.

Comparative analysis of some characteristics of security in policy and societal security in sociology


Thus, societal security addresses the establishment of security for a diverse range of small and big units in under-national, national and international levels. These units are considered in context of family, ethnicity, political parties, voluntary organizations, youth, women and children, arts and cultural groups, religious groups, racial groups, citizens, the neighborhood, business and occupational groups and others, but what makes them a reference object of societal security is oppression by the government, legal discrimination, social inequalities (such as the level of access to education, occupation and income), lack of access to life facilities (such as healthcare, food and etc.); these matters made it difficult for them to continue their life and perhaps in some cases, their physical body is out of danger, but their spiritual existence as honorable beings is o­n the edge of fall and collapse [109]. In fact, the object of references of societal security (security for whom?) is various groups who live with fears, concerns, threats and vulnerability and suffer from insecurity. As a result of their identity and social life being a subject of discrimination and because of lack of freedom to protest, they are prevented from dissemination of their ideas and beliefs, and there are no strong executive laws according to which they could prove their identity and restore their rights [110].

From the perspective of sociology, societal security rather than relying o­n measures of military power, is established in functional processes by means of regular forces of society. Therefore, security in sociology is detached from political hegemony and decisions of the government elite and is close to social harmony and common norms. In fact, being based o­n principle that various religious, artistic, racial, national, sexual and other groups are beautiful, colorful and that different pieces of human life together form human society garden, societal security provides the proper communication between different groups and thereby provides social harmony and integration [111]. With the establishment of societal security, social groups and units assure the continuation of their life and access to resources and facilities. As a result, risks and threats of aggression and invasion to their material and spiritual existence would end and thus, there will be no reason left for conflict and aggression between them and social harmony will be implemented [112]. But o­n the other hand, if social units follow the behavior patterns of cooperation and friendship, they would come to social harmony that facilitates the societal security mechanism. Therefore, we can consider: there is mutual relationship between societal security and social harmony.

The article key content is presented in the model-68 of tetranet harmonious thinking:


Manijeh Navidnia, Assistant Professor in Sociology, faculty member at Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Iran

E-mail: navidnia_at_hotmail.com, navidnia_at_societalsecurity.com

Web: www.SocietalSecurity.com


Matjaz Mulej and Anita Hrast


ISO 26000 o­n Social Responsibility for Harmony


Humankind received a new official support to harmony: ISO 26000 (ISO) o­n social responsibility (SR) was published in 2010 by the International standard organization that unites 143 countries and engaged professional, trade unionists etc. from 90 countries to work o­n the document for many years [63]. The seven core subjects in ISO are (1) organization and organizational governance, (2) human rights, (3) labor practices, (4) environment, (5) fair operation practices, (6) consumer issues, and (7) community involvement and development. Their common denominators are (a) interdependence, and (b) holistic approach. They are essential for survival. ISO was passed in the time of the dead-alley crisis of neoliberal economics. It is still becoming a successful novelty, i.e. innovation, though

The essence of ISO has many connections with harmony: SR is aimed at (1) Support to sustainable development; (2) Honesty instead of abuse of power toward: coworkers, business and other partners, broader society (incl. charity), natural preconditions of human survival; (3) Well-being, satisfaction, motivation of humans, thus leading to success in organizations of all sizes and programs, private and public.

SR reflects and influences values, culture, ethics and norms (VCEN) of harmony and resulting strategy of requisite holism (RH) based o­n interdependence, not independence (that is possible o­nly in legal, but not in natural and economic terms).

One essential consequence of SR and related harmony is not visible in accountancy data, but very crucial: SR reduces/eliminates troubles/costs caused by: strikes & poor work, lost markets, lost suppliers, lost partners, lost good image/trust, riots, terrorism, eco-remediation, medication, etc., that would be avoided, if SR was practice rather than o­ne-sidedness and abuse of power. SR is both the result of social harmony, and vice versa.

ISO states explicitly that SR supports: competitive advantage; reputation; ability to attract and retain workers or members, customers, clients; maintenance of employees' morale, commitment and productivity; view of investors, owners, donors, etc. SR offers a new initiative for humankind to survive by harmony: it addresses all seven crucial topics of human survival and puts them in synergy by the concepts of holistic approach and interdependence: "An organization should look at the core subjects holistically, that is, it should consider all core subjects and issues, and their interdependence, rather than concentrating o­n a single issue. Organizations should be aware that efforts to address o­ne issue may involve a trade-off with other issues" [63, lines 896–900]. ISO supports the holistic approach and interdependence indirectly, too. See Figure 3 in ISO 26000.

We suggest five basic lines of measures to be undertaken:

1.Individuals: (1.1.) as consumers and (1.2.) as citizens.

2.Organizations: practice SR (2.1.) as a human attribute and as (2.2.) business strategy for less trouble/cost and (2.3) pressure over peers and government for VCEN and working with more RS.

3.Country/government: the public sector (3.1.), as a whole is the biggest customer, and (3.2.) innovation visible in the top business excellence and total quality, which reaches (3.2.1.) all way to its 'systemic quality', i.e. systemic synergy of honest prices, pay-role, development funds, and (3.2.2.) including public officers/employees; (3.3.) attainment of the same combination in attributes of suppliers of suppliers; (3.4.) country adds pressure over people, other governments and general VCEN toward more RS and harmony.

4.International community: (4.1.) adds to the international law new world-wide obligatory law covering (4.1.1.) world peace, (4.1.2.) the basic human rights, and (4.1.3.) SR; (4.2.) adds the world-democracy.

5.Systems/cybernetic science community, sociologists and other social scientists: (5.1.) awareness building of the general need for (5.1.1.) Ethics of interdependence, (5.1.2.) Requisitely holistic approach enabled by interdisciplinary creative cooperation; (5.2.) Provision of methods supportive of interdisciplinary creative cooperation and ethics of interdependence; (5.3.) Holistic approach and interdependence linking the SR topics.

Thus, SR would be able to support harmony, and receive support from harmony, for the civilization of humans to survive. As Dr. Leo Semashko and others have stated: the current global crisis is not financial o­nly, but the crisis of the socio-economic industrial thinking in a whole with its extremely o­ne-sided and short-term orientation o­n criteria of success. The three years of surfacing of the current crisis show those socio-economic tools of so far and cannot solve the problems, because these tools have caused them. SR and harmony are showing the new chance.

The model-69 of the article contents in tetranet harmonious thinking is:


Matjaz Mulej, Dr. Dr., Prof. Emeritus, (Systems and Innovation Theory), University of Maribor; IASCYS International Academy for Systems and Cybernetic Sciences (Vienna, Austria), President; IRDO Institute for Development of Social Responsibility, Maribor.

Address: EPF, P.O.Box 142, Razlagova 14, SI-2001 Maribor, Slovenia

E-mail: mulej_at_uni-mb.si

Web: www.irdo.si, www.peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=64


Anita Hrast, General manager, IRDO Institute for Development of Social Responsibility. Address: Maribor, Slovenia.
E-mail: anita.hrast_at_siol.net


Ada Aharoni


Peace and Harmony between Israelis and Palestinians

Based o­n Mutual Recognition of National Aspirations


The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken various forms during the last decades, eruptions of armed struggle have alternated with periods of negotiations, and with periods of preparation for further confrontations. We are going now through a period of violence that has caused tremendous suffering to both sides and that can turn into still greater and more dangerous conflagrations. Every effort that may contribute to reestablishment of rest and promotion of peace is of great importance.

Unprejudiced scrutiny of the conflict and of the current situation shows that peace can o­nly be attained if both sides have the possibility to achieve their right of living with security in a nation of their own. The Israeli authorities must accept the legitimacy of a Palestinian State, and the Palestinian authorities must accept the legitimacy of the Israeli State. From the Israeli side, this implies ending settlements and any other imposed presence in Palestinian territories. From the Palestinian side, this implies accepting that the refugees interested in living in a Palestinian nation should be settled in the Palestinian State to be created, and renounce the aspirations to turn Israel into a Palestinian State with a Jewish minority.

The States of Israel and Palestine would be interested to collaborate in economic, cultural and other fields for the benefit of both sides

At the basis of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is the fact that both sides have claims o­n the same territory and both believe that their claim has a sound historical and ethical basis. There are now two distinct entities: (a) The state of Israel (80 % Israeli citizens of Jewish nationality and 20 % Israeli citizens of Palestinian nationality), with a democratically elected government. (b) The Palestinian autonomy with a Palestinian population under the administration of a Palestinian authority. It also contains Israeli settlements that disregard the Palestinian authority. This situation is considered by both sides as transitional.

A workable and accepted solution by both sides is the TWO STATES solution. A Palestinian state is to be created governed democratically by a Palestinian government. Agreed borders between Palestine and Israel are to be defined; Jewish settlements in Palestinian territory are to be dismantled, except for those that can be incorporated into the Israeli State, or into the Palestinian State, o­n the basis of agreed definition of the borders. Exchange of some territory is to be made possible.

Solutions based o­n a single state have been advocated, the proponents of these solutions generally deny any right of the other side. There are factions in Israel, which disregard any Palestinian national rights, they rely o­n the Israeli might and advocate a single state solution with exclusive rights to the Jewish population. There are also Palestinian factions, such as Hamas, that imagine that the State of Israel can be eradicated and all the territory would become a Palestinian State.

The implementation of the two states solution obviously involves ending the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory, and ending the Arab – Israeli Conflict, which will promote peace and harmony in the region. o­ne hears eventually, claims that "the end of the occupation" should be independent of an agreement o­n the two states solution and precede any negotiations. This is unrealistic.

Israel cannot end the occupation of Palestine without a mutual agreement concerning the safe borders of Palestine. That is, Israel cannot end the occupation of Palestine without an agreement concerning its own security.

A solution of the conflict based o­n the two states solution can be reached o­n the basis of negotiations, and the end of the occupation will be an integral part of it. Now that Gilad Shalit, the kidnapped Israeli soldier, by Hamas, has been swopped for more

than a thousand Palestinian prisoners, many of them former terrorists, it is hoped that the peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority will be renewed. It is also hoped that a Peace Treaty, like the o­nes between Israel and Egypt, and Israel and Jordan, will be signed, creating a viable free State of Palestine living in Peace and Harmony by the side of its neighbor the State of Israel.

The Two States solution should include issues of cultural cooperation and peace and harmony educational programs, aimed at developing a culture of peace, respect and understanding, between the two people and the young generations. In this process a huge role can be played by NGO's like IFLAC: The International Forum for the Literature and Culture of Peace [71], which creates Bridges of communication and understanding through art, literature and scientific research and knowledge. There is a paramount importance for the lasting peace of the two states, that can be promoted by common school and academic programs. o­ne of them – is the GHA project [72].

The content and logic of this article is illustrated in the model-70 of harmonious thinking presented in the ABC of Harmony:


Prof. Ada Aharoni studied at London University, where she received her M. Phil. Degree in English Literature, and at the Hebrew University (Jerusalem), where she received her Ph.D. Degree o­n the works of Nobel Prize Laureate, Saul Bellow. She taught Literature and Sociology, at Haifa University, and at the TECHNION: Israel Institute of Technology. She is the Founding President of IFLAC: The International Forum for the Literature and Culture of Peace (Founded 1999). She published twenty six books and more than 150 articles. GHA cofounder. Tel.: 972 77 3202818

Address: 18 A. Amos Street, apt. 77, Nesher 36700, Israel

Web: www.iflac.com/ada, www.iflac.wordpress.com, www.peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=2
E-mail: iflac_at_bezeqint.net

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