GPS Prehistory: From Intuition of Harmony to Theory of SPHERONS.
Global History of Peace
3.1. Numa Pompilius: The Oldest Example of Social Peace from Harmony of Classes. Erika Lazarova and Leo Semashko
3.2. Peace from Harmony through the Ahimsa Principle at Buddhist Indian King Asoka. Subhash Chandra
3.3. Iroquois Nations: 300 Years of Peace. Leo Semashko
3.4. Ancient Greece: The Ideas of Peace and Justice from Harmony for GPS. Apostolos John Paschos
3.5. African Philosophy of Ubuntu: Beyond Egoism for Global Peace from Harmony. Heli Habyarimana
3.6. Erasmus, Gottfried Leibniz and Immanuel Kant: Founders of Global Peace Science from Harmony. Leo Semashko
3.7. What is the Human Nature: War or Peace? SPHERONS: Logic of Peace Nature. Leo Semashko
3.8. Classic Peace Ideas in GPS and their GHA Interpretation
3.9. Peace. Prayer for Peace and Culture. Nicholas Roerich
How Democritus’ intuitive guess of atoms
through 2500 years became a scientific theory of atomic
structure of matter, so and the deep intuition of social
harmony at the ancient thinkers became
the theory of global harmonious
structure of SPHERONS as eternal source and actor of
global peace in GPS almost through 3000 years.
In the GPS first two chapters was found (theoretically in sociology and empirically in statistics) that the GPS subject are SPHERONS - harmonious spheral classes of the population, differing on employment in production of one of the four necessary and sufficient resources (PIOT) of existence of each society and ensuring peaceful conditions of their production, without which their production is impossible. This means that SPHERONS are the ultimate cause, natural source, absolute guarantor and eternal actors of global peace, without which life of human and society is impossible also. This is expressed by the corresponding chain of concepts and tetra-model of key conditions of society and human in global history: 1.SPHERONS in history - 2.Production of PIOT resources - 3.Global and local peace - 4.Life of society and human.
Model-6. Key conditions of social life in global history
To this scientific conclusion brings all of human history. It acquires, from this perspective, the meaning of GPS history as the evolution of spontaneous manifestations of harmony of SPHERONS in two levels: the historical episodes of social peace of different nations and at the level of its (peace) mental searches and intuitive insights/guesses in various forms of public (collective) consciousness: philosophy, religion, ethics, art, law and policy. Intuition of peace is expressed in all the monuments of world literature, in all religions of the world and in all the Scriptures (see below).
The common basis of two levels of the spontaneous manifestations of SPHERONS harmony is their universal intuition, as a practical so and thought inherent to the whole population. Therefore the people always want peace and never want war. It cannot want, in principle, children, women, the elderly and the disabled, who, as the statistics show, are not less than 60% of the total population (see Chapter 2). It is a law of history that in the first approximation can be formulated as a natural law of intuitive awareness of spontaneous peace from harmony of SPHERONS.
The third chapter is attempt of historical proof of SPHERONS in addition to the sociological and statistical in the first two chapters. It is devoted to some historical examples of the real social peace from harmony of SPHERONS, as well as its philosophical quests. Other chapters and paragraphs are devoted to its quest in other mental forms.
3.1. Numa Pompilius: The Oldest Example of Social Peace from Harmony of Classes.
Erika Lazarova and Leo Semashko
This article is a continuation and development of article about Numa Pompilius in the ABC of Harmony [1, 216-217].
The deep spontaneous potential of global peace of SPHERONS and their powerful peace intuition manifested in the ocean of military human history through incomprehensible, surprising andat the same time amazing islands of peace in various parts of the world. An early example of paradise peaceful oasis, which is known to recorded history, is 43 year reign of the second king of Rome Numa Pompilius (754-672 BC). The moral beauty and harmony of his character ensured to Roman people the social harmony and consent order, on the soil of which peace has prospered during all reign of Numa – 43 years.
The Ancient Greek historian Plutarch characterizes his personality: "He was endued with a soul rarely tempered by nature, and disposed to virtue, which he had yet more subdued by discipline, a severe life, and the study of philosophy; means which had not only succeeded in expelling the baser passions, but also the violent and rapacious temper which barbarians are apt to think highly of; true bravery, in his judgment, was regarded as consisting in the subjugation of our passions by reason. He banished all luxury and softness from his own home", dismissed his personal guard [2, 100, 104], sought a modest and worthy life.
His high morale, pure religious feeling, probity and stability in the virtuous life became base for "the Senate and the Roman people" to choose his by the second king of Rome in 714 BC [2, 98, 100]. Due to the high moral and intellectual qualities, Numa created for the Roman people the social structure based on the principles of harmony and justice. The source of his deep intuition of social harmony of Roman SPHERONS and thirst of peace was the nobility of his character.
His name is associated with the reforms that actually made Rome civilized and harmonized it for all period of his reign, eliminating all wars and unrest. He would say that he agreed to become king, to soften the hearts of the warlike Romans, excite noble feelings in them and teach them to live wisely. He overcame the tribal enmity between the Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans by "distinguishing the whole people by the several arts and trades… and the new division became a source of general harmony and intermixture". This division allowed Plutarch to highlight that "The frame of government which Numa formed was democratic and popular to last extreme" [2, 116, 123]. This means the inextricable link of democracy with the division of the people on employment and not for other reasons: the property, nobility, etc.
Numa, probably the first in the world, understood that ethnic strife and hostility can be overcome by universal dividing the population on employment, in which each group is necessary, equal and useful to all the others that ensures harmony between them and eliminates enmity and war between them. Numa is the world's first political leader who understood that harmonious social structure must be translated and provided with the appropriate form of democracy, law, politics and religion, i.e. they must be harmonious and peaceful. The deepest and the only source of peace can only be social harmony of classes of employment, i.e. SPHERONS into their historical forms of PARTONS.
Complete peace during Numa’s reign was provided social structure of the Roman population not on the property and its stratification and on employment. Numa genius as a thinker and politician is that he not only knew this structure but also practically implemented it in the political-legal and religious order of ancient Rome for nearly three thousand years ago. This unique experience of harmonious peace and democracy today was forgotten and in historical science and education but it was revived in the ABC of Harmony and GPS.
For Numa peace and peaceful harmonious coexistence of the tribes was the main principle of welfare and prosperity of society. Numa's peacefulness focused creative efforts of Roman citizen on handicrafts, agriculture and trade. These types of employment formed the basis of social structure of the three classes (PARTONS) of the Roma population: artisans, farmers and traders as historical forms SPHERONS of ancient Rome in Numa’s time. He helped the first social group in establishing their professional board. For farmers he introduced the worship of the god of boundaries Terminus along with the land surveying andsanctification of boundary stones together with the neighbors. This prevented tensions between the neighbors and provide their peaceful coexistence. He also took care of landless peasants by granting them land gratuitously and mitigated slavery. Thus, Numa has become a real legislator of social harmony.
His religious reforms also served to peace from harmony. Among the orders of priests that he created were Fecials – the guardians of peace [2, 110] – contrary to the prevailing tradition of the worship of the gods of war, the most important of which was Mars, as the main figure of the Roman religious cult. Historically this was the first public act of recognition of the value of peace, which wasn't accepted. At the same time, the worship of God of borders Terminus and priestly cult of Fecials, which was created Numa, is the world's first religion of peace, which he consciously opposed the dominant religion of war. (Indian emperor Ashoka, who was rejecting military conflicts, is considered to be "The Father of eternal peace"; however he lived nearly three centuries later than Numa). He established the foundations of religious life, which served to harmonization of society based on secularization.
The solar calendar reform introduced by Numa was also dedicated to the creation of peace and harmony: he added two months – January and February, replacing the first month March, which was devoted to the god Mars, with January devoted to the god Janus, the patron of the peaceful occupations. The doors of that temple were opened during the war, and shut in time of peace. As Plutarch writes ecstatically: "But, during the reign of Numa, those gates [of the Temple of Janus] were never seen open a single day, but continued constantly shut for a space of forty-three years together; such an entire and universal cessation of war existed…[The people of Rome] began to experience a change of feeling, and partook in the general longing for the sweets of peace and order, and for life employed in the quiet tillage of soil, bringing up of children,… For during the whole reign of Numa, there was neither war, nor sedition, nor innovation in the state…" [2, 118–119].
Another, Roman, historian Titus Livius (Livy), confirms: "the greatest of his (Numa Pompilius) merit that throughout the reign he kept peace no less than the kingdom" [3, 21 (5)]), and "as a ruler he was devoted entirely to peace” [4, 262]. Note that evidence of Livy about Numa much poorer than of Plutarch. However, these evidences ofPlutarch and Libya is sufficient for the UN to establish now Numa Pompilius Day as creator of peace from harmony, as the highest and the first sample of peacemaking political leader on his birthday - April 21 - it is also the day of the foundation of Rome [2, 100]. The initiator of this significant date could be the Government of Italy, primarily interested in the glorious memory of this great compatriot, example for modern politicians and governments, unjustly forgotten now even historical science. Unfortunately, one of the last books devoted to the analysis of war and peace in the ancient world, the activity of Numa considered very narrow and limited, only in connection with the state of Janus temple "as an indicator of peace and war " [4, 257-263]. But Numa remains the greatest peacemaking figures throughout human history, because on a par with him in the political peacemaking put no one else who would 43 years of state reign dedicated peace. At the UN there are no exist such leaders now. Understand his true peace greatness can only with positions of GPS.
Numa wrote 12 books dedicated to social and religious harmony (this confirms his intensive intellectual work), which were buried with him at his request. These books were recovered in his tomb some four hundred years later, and burned by the city governor, who considered them to be inappropriate for disclosure. However, his ideas are getting revived nowadays.
The key contents of the article are expressed in the model-7 of the harmonious Tetranet thinking in chain of concepts: 1.SPHERONS of Rome – 2.Numa: Intuition of SPHERONS harmony – 3.Division of Roman people by classes of employment – 4.Peace from harmony in Rome for 43 years.
Model-7. Numa Pompilius’ intuition of SPHERONS harmony as a source of peace
Numa did not knew SPHERONS. (Incidentally, the modern society also does not know them, and only now, after almost 3000 years after Numa it is approaching to their scientific knowledge in GPS). But his deep intuition of their spontaneous harmony and peacefulness of the population, together with its powerful innovative intelligence of reformer and practical possibilities of the Roman state head allowed him to harmonize its working-age population, i.e. all employed labor PARTONS of Rome by just economic, political, legal and religious order of three classes, which he established deliberately. This is an uneclipsed historical reformist value of Numa Pompilius, who first opened, albeit intuitively, the way of global peace from social harmony of employed labor of Roman classes, expressing deep interests and attributes of SPHERONS.
Erika Lazarova, Senior Research fellow, Doctor, Centre for Science Studies and History of Science, Bulgarian Academy of Science. Sofia, Bulgaria.
Web: http://lib.icr.su/node/927, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Leo Semashko, PhD, GHA President, St-Petersburg, Russia,
Web: www.peacefromharmony.org,E-mail: email@example.com
3.2. Peace from Harmony through the Ahimsa Principle at Buddhist Indian King Asoka.
Creating peace from harmony, based on intuition of deeply hidden SPHERONS (harmonious classes of the population), has an ancient history and a long tradition in India. This intuition is based on the principle of ahimsa (non-violence), which was formulated by the Vedas over three thousand years ago. It found the most vivid manifestation in modernity at Mahatma Gandhi in his movement of nonviolent civil disobedience that led to India's independence from the British Empire without single shot in 1947. In ancient times, this principle received a strong practical embodiment at the Indian King Ashoka (304-232 BC) but it had a long prehistory before him.
In Indian religions the concept of non-violence (ahimsa) has played a pivotal role throughout them history. The word ‘ahimsa’ expresses an ancient Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism precept. The ancient principle of ahimsa has had a profound impact on Indian thought and civilization over the millennia, and it continues to influence the world today.
The ancient Indian yogis gave us a very basic but powerful principle to attain peace from harmony. This principle is called Ahimsa or non-violence, the philosophy of love. Ahimsa is a Sanskrit word that is commonly translated as non-violence, non-killing, non-harming or non-injury. The Mahabharata, one of the epics of Hinduism has multiple mentions of the phrase Ahimsa Paramo Dharma, which literally means: non-violence is the highest moral virtue . Mahabharata emphasizes the cardinal importance of Ahimsa in Hinduism in the following meanings: Ahimsa is the highest virtue, Ahimsa is the highest self-control, Ahimsa is the greatest gift, Ahimsa is the best suffering, Ahimsa is the highest sacrifice, Ahimsa is the finest strength, Ahimsa is the greatest friend, Ahimsa is the greatest happiness, Ahimsa is the highest truth & principle of creating peace from harmony and Ahimsa is the greatest teaching of creating world peace .
Ahimsa (non-violence from love), tolerance and peaceful existence are the essential ingredients for creating world peace & human unity in the world. Ahimsa reduces the conflicts & violence; and creates the peace & harmony in the world .
Buddha preached everyone to follow ahimsa. He said, “Lead others, not by violence, but righteousness and equity.” According to Dhammapada Buddha pointed out that one who carries on his tasks with violence is neither righteous nor religious. He said that he who has truth, virtue, non-violence, restraint, and control and is free from impurity is a wise man and can be called an elder. The entire life of Buddha is full of ahimsa and his teachings easily get imbibed among the people .
Ashoka (Asoka, ca. 304–232 BC), popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. The precepts of Buddhism got a universal recognition and worldwide sympathy under the pious patronage of Mauryan emperor Asoka, who was highly influenced by the teachings of Buddhism.
In the early years of his rule, this emperor was cruel and despotic in his behaviour. one of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests. His empire stretched from present-day Pakistan, Afghanistan and southern parts of Iran in the west, to the present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of Assam in the east, and as far south as northern Kerala and Andhra. He conquered the kingdom named Kalinga, which no one in his dynasty had conquered.
A sudden change of Asoka’s imperial reign began with a series of bloody wars culminating in the Kalinga War of 260 BC. The mammoth loss of life (more than one hundred thousand of corpses), destructions and suffering witnessed on the battlefield made him turn away from war. Ashoka was imbued with a deep intuition of harmony and thirst of peace from the horrors of war and under the strong influence of Buddhism adopted its ahimsa and dharma, source of which could only be eternal peace of SPHERONS. "Dharma" is derived from the Sanskrit word for "duty" and includes the basic virtuous teachings that can be practiced by all men regardless of social origins.
Emperor Asoka’s dharma is towards a world peace & new imperial unity. Ashoka’s saw the dharma as a righteous path showing the utmost respect for all living things. The dharma would bring harmony and unity to India in the form of much needed compassion. Serving as a guiding light, a voice of conscious that is the dharma can transform one to be a respectful and highly responsible human being. Edward D'cruz interprets the Ashoka’s dharma as a "religion to be used as a symbol of a new imperial unity and a cementing force to weld the diverse and heterogeneous elements of the empire" .
‘Dharma’ is Ethical Value - represents the ethical law of universe, is a cosmic principle which holds the universe as one integral.Dharma refers to Righteous - Actions for Right duty & Right thinking. Ashoka’shighest dharma “Ahimsa or non-violence prohibit the killing of people during the war and showing compassion towards animals &people. He prohibited the burning of forests as it may harm or injure living creatures.
Asoka abhorred war in all its form and followed the principle of non-violence in matters of international affairs too. He therefore dispatched ‘peace-missions’ to various lands to sort out differences. Ashoka's great contribution as a ruler was the way he put them into practice through universal values in cultures (Truth, Peace & Nonviolence) not the differences. He therefore dispatched ‘peace-missions’ to various lands (countries) to promote the unity in cultural diversity and Global Harmony’ through the principles of Ahimsa (Nonviolence). He promoted unity in cultural diversity, mutual respect, brotherhood, harmony and cooperation with the spirit of a ‘Global Harmony’ (Vasudheva Kutumbkam).. He ensured peace, justice, and good government in what was the largest unified empire in India until the arrival of the British.
In his utterances, he emphasized the spirit of religious tolerance, peace and compromise, which go along with ahimsa. Thus, Asoka extended the domain of his ahimsa principle from human beings to animals and from his own masses to foreign people.
"Hate melts in the presence of love. Hate dissolves in the presence of ahimsa. There is no power greater than ahimsa. Its practice will make you fearless. He who practices it with real faith can move the whole world, tame wild animals, win the hearts of all and subdue his enemies. He can do and undo things. Its power is ineffable, its glory is indescribable; its greatness is inscrutable." Swami Sivananda. Yoga Life, 2008 .
Ahimsa principle rather claims "love all" than "not kill." Buddha said "Love all, so that you may not wish to kill any." Ahimsa is a rejection of evil in behavior, thinking and speech, which is the essence of Buddhist dharma as the universal law of harmonious existence. Ahimsa is directed against evil itself and not against the people who commit it. Ahimsa or nonviolence is the oldest Indian form of peace intuition from harmony of SPHERONS. This is its modern scientific explanation.
Ashoka is the first king of India, who understood the importance of Buddhism in strengthening the empire and contributed to its spread by his edicts and building more 84,000 stupas across his empire to house the sacred relics of the Lord Buddha. He saw in the Buddhist principle of ahimsa national value, which eliminates the violent conquest, putting in their place of love and conviction. They provide social harmony, on the basis of which peace thrives . It is very important for humanity today.
At present we are living in a Kali Yuga i.e. Age of darkness, fear & insecurity & also known as age of conflicts, violence & wars due to erosion of human values. The nuclear age begins on a quiet stretch of desert in Alamogordo, New Mexico, USA on July 16, 1945. on that day humanity took a long step on the road to its own demise. on August 6, 1945, Hiroshima became death. Three days later, on August 9, 1945, Nagasaki became death.
The majority of people in the world lived through the culture of conflicts & violence during the twentieth century. It is unfortunate that the twenty first century too has started in an environment of hostilities and holocaust. The escalation of terrorism, culminating in the September Eleven (2001) attacks on the World Trade Centre New York, USA and Washington, and of counter-terrorism in many parts of the world, are interdependent links in a chain of growing globalization of violence and violent globalization.
Humanity today finds itself in a crisis at the new crossroad. In the current age of manmade turbulences, need for moving towards Harmony is being felt across the world. We are threatened by nuclear destruction and economic collapse. Nuclear armament is the major threat to world peace. How to save the humanity from the threat of Nuclear War? How can we attain the world peace & human unity? How can we learn to live in peace from harmony?
This is the biggest challenge of the 21st century. The present situation calls for a drastic strengthening of Global peace movement involving the entire Leaders’ of the world. It's time to focus on ‘Thinking together for world peace & working together’ based on Global Peace Science (GPS) to save the Humanity through its main law - the principle of Ahimsa (Nonviolence from Love).
GPS provides for all countries to achieve World Peace & oneness of Humanity through SPHERONS and their harmonious education in the 21st century on basis of the ABC of Harmony . GPS advocates true definition of peace: “If you want peace – unfold harmony of SPHERONS on the basis of their science.”Global Peace can be reached o¬nly by conscious efforts of its world actors SPHERONS in all countries through their peace education in this science and not a global preparation to war in an endless arms race.
This modern scientific understanding of global and includes and retains itself a deep intuition of harmony of SPHERONS in the principle of ahimsa at great Buddhist King of India - Ashoka. Their fundamental connection is expressed by the model of Tetranet harmonious thinking in chain of concepts: 1.Harmony of SPHERONS of India - 2.Buddhism: Intuition of SPHERONS harmony - 3.Ashoka: peace through SPHERONS ahimsa - 4.Ahisma: principle of GPS.
Model-8. Ashoka’s intuition
Ahimsa principle as a principle of Peaceloveology or Global Peace Science has great significance for our time.
Dr. Subhash Chandra,
GHA Ambassador of Peace and Disarmament from Harmony
1.Board of Trustee Global Peace Foundation, India; www.globalpeace.org
2.Associate Professor (Hon.) at Intercultural Open University (IOU), NL,
3.Chief Advisor - International Centre of Spirituality & Leadership – at Central Institute of Business Management, Nagpur, India.
4.Project Director- Global Interfaith Peace & Harmony Project, Indiawww.globalpeacefestival.org
5.International Coordinator, WWA- World without Anger, Kathmandu, Nepal. www.worldwithoutanger.org
3.3. Iroquois Nations: 300 Years of Peace. Leo Semashko
Our brief review of this topic is made by a large and wonderful article of Neta C. Crawford: The Long Peace Among Iroquois Nations [1, 348-359], in which the reader will find many secondary for us but interesting historical details.
We talk about the five North American Iroquois nations: Mohawk, oneida, onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca, who around 1450 created a League as a peace union, which lasted about 300 years. This alliance was based on harmony of their diversity with preserving all of their cultural identity and their full autonomy within the League. Each member of the League was free to make war or peace separately with other nations. Prior to the merger, these peoples were almost constant state of war in a form of “endless exchange of forays” on each other. Their union grew out of the Great Law of Peace (or the Great Binding Law), which was adopted by these nations. "The Great Law is a comprehensive document which includes the policies, procedures, philosophy, and mechanisms of amendment for the League. The main purposes of the League were to achieve general peace and to keep unity and order among the five nations who frequently fought each other before the League’s formation. The image is of nations sitting together under a tree of peace"[12, 352]. This law could be terminated at the request of any of its five allies.
The Great Law was limited to five tribes. "Relations with Native and later non-Native nations were regulated through a series of peace treaties, known as the Covenant Chain, but could also include war"[12, 353]. If other people refused to take over peace with the League, it declared war on the rebellious people, captured its territory and disarm it but it was maintained a system of internal control.
The League was ruled by the Great Council of the fifty members on the 10 most worthy representatives from every nation. These representatives were called "sachems" or press secretaries, who upon taking office gave their property in common use, and become the poorest people. If sachems executed their duty bad, they were dismissed from their posts. They were supposed to be above any party to better ensure common interests. The Council met annually, usually in the autumn, on the territory of the onondaga tribe and made decisions by consensus in the prescribed manner. "After the League's formation, the evidence of the continuing existence of the League suggests that war among the five and later six nations significantly declined or was entirely eliminated. There is no mention by historians of war among League members after the formation of the League, although there was some fighting, "a quarrel," and etc. [12, 355].
Without going into further interesting details of this unique peace event within almost 300 years and not finding an explanation of its reasons at historians, we, as in other cases, can assume with full basis the following. Similar cause could only be the universal social structure of SPHERONS of Iroquois nations, which, naturally, they could not know but the harmony which they could comprehend their deep intuition to provide it by the relevant institutions of peace social order in all spheres of their life.
The logic of this complex socio-cognitive process can be expressed by the following model of Tetranet harmonious thinking in the chain of concepts: 1.Harmony of Iroquois SPHERONS - 2.Intuition of harmony at Iroquois - 3.Institutions of peace from harmony at Iroquois - 4.Peace of Iroquois nations of 300 years.
Model-9. Iroquois peace
Intuition of social harmony of SPHERONS is essential for Global Peace Science, which saves, enhances, and scientifically explains this intuition anyway.
The presented above three paragraphs, on the one hand, are the historical proof of SPHERONS, and on the other hand, lay the foundation of a new science - Global History capable to explain with position of global social structure all the diversity of historical events as its infinite manifestation. A striking example is our three cases of long local peace - in Rome, India and North America. None of the historians cannot and tried to explain their social causes / sources in different parts of the world with one approach. GPS explains them from one, universal and eternal source - global harmonious social structure of SPHERONS, intuition of which by separate nations and leaders became deeper reason to establish lasting local peace on different continents. A way from SPHERONS to peace in all cases was through intuition, insight, guess and thirsty of peace in one form or another.
However, as we have seen from our analysis, in each case has its own historic and unique reason of that intuition of SPHERONS that caused each of these examples of lasting peace. At Numa Pompilius it was the nobility of character and high intelligence; at Ashoka this cause were the horrors of war, its bloodshed, destruction and suffering; at Iroquois peoples this cause was the senselessness of continuous mutual military attacks on each other. Unlike the first two cases, at the Iroquois we see the peace intuition not one leader and nations in general, which ultimately made the decision. Therefore peace at the Iroquois is not limited lifespan of leaders as in Rome and India, and lasted for three centuries, i.e. many (about 15) generations.
At the same time establishment and supporting peace ensured in each historical case the fullness of social life of the people in all its spheres, i.e. social, spiritual, political and economic measures / institutions, rather than a single measure / institution of any kind. This confirms spheral pluralism of sources / causes of peace in any case, which is provided by harmonious pluralism of SPHERONS.
Our examples of Numa Pompilius from Rome, Ashoka of India, Iroquois peoples of North America are only a little fraction of similar examples in world history. They can be much larger in the global history of the world and GPS. Ubiquitous and eternal in social time SPHERONS in their permanent structure creates a solid foundation for global history as a scientific discipline that unites all its private areas in the past and present. It is a very broad field for historical researches also in the framework of GPS in the future.
GPS is impossible not only without a history of real cases of peace but without a history of ideas and thinking peace, to which is logical to proceed in the following paragraphs.
Leo Semashko, PhD, GHA President, St-Petersburg, Russia,
Web: www.peacefromharmony.org,E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3.4. Ancient Greece: The Ideas of Peace and Justice from Harmony for GPS.
Apostolos John Paschos
This article is a continuation and development of my article "Greek Philosophy: Harmony Ideas" published in the ABC of Harmony [1, 127-129].
Hellenic spiritual heritage has colossal potential of the philosophical, moral and religious ideas of peace from harmony for the modern Global Peace Science (GPS), which is created in the GHA based on scientific theory of harmony of this ABC . In this article I am trying to develop the ideas of Greek paradigm of harmony in aspect of social peace, i.e. in a narrower scale but in the most important sense for modernity.
Among the giants of philosophical thought of ancient Greece, we see two geniuses - Plato and Aristotle, who own a very important idea for GPS.
The first key idea is accordance of the social structure of employment of people as a source of peace to necessary objective laws. The genius of Plato expressed in his ideal of the harmonious state, the social structure of eternal estates of which on employment (philosophers, soldiers and public workers,farmers and artisans) corresponded to the tripartite structure of the eternal soul (wisdom, courage and temperance/moderation). The eternal soul qualities define and dominate in the corresponding estates. This is the first and perhaps the only one in the history of thought up to SPHERONS an attempt to find an objective and constant basis of harmonious social structure common to all nations. GPS, based on scientific theory of social harmony , makes the second such attempt after Plato, setting global and harmonious social structure of SPHERONS (spheral classes of the population) in accordance with the eternal spheres of social production of necessary and sufficient resources PIOT. Namely SPHERONS as fair and harmonious classes of the population, which is proved in the first chapter, are sources, guarantors and creators of global peace. But it has become possible to understand on the basis of only objective structure of the four spheres of social production, which define the structure of SPHERONS and their peace nature, without which this production is impossible, hence fife of society and human.
The only difference is that Plato saw the structural basis of ideal state in structure of soul and GPS sees it in the structure of production. Another difference is that Plato allowed peace only between the Greeks but kept constant war of Greeks with the barbarians as a source of replenishment of slaves. Therefore, his understanding of peace was local and limited but it GPS - global and universal.
Another key idea for GPS is peace social nature of human in his aspiration for living together in peace with others. This idea was profound development at Aristotle. But Aristotle, unlike Plato, did not find the objective social structure that ensures peace. He believed this reason is temperance, which provides the harmony between human beings and, therefore, the peace between them.
These key ideas of peace for GPS are supplemented by many others of different character at other Greek thinkers [13, 172-225]. They are identical to deep intuition of Plato and Aristotle in understanding different qualities of Greek SPHERONS.
- Aristophanes, satirical poet (445 - 386 BC) said, "peace is thousands of goods"  that expresses the universal character of peace of universal SPHERONS.
- Euripides, tragic poet (485 - 406 BC) says, “peace, come on respected city (state)" , i.e. peace requires care and attention of the entire population and all SPHERONS.
- Philemon, writer (361 - 263 BC): “Peace is goodness of everything: for marriages, celebrations, children, friends, joy, wealth and health" , hence, the favor of peace is as universal, as SPHERONS - sources of peace.
- Protagoras, philosopher (490 - 420 BC): said about peace that "it is fair and advantageous for all" , i.e. SPHERONS establish with peace all other values - justice, favor etc.
The Greek pastors, bishops and patriarchs [18; 19; 20, 21] of the beginning of a new era emphasized that peace is a gift of one true God only to a man with a pure soul, virtue, freedom, law, equality, which includes physical, mental, spiritual, cultural and economic needs of people globally. Here universality, completeness and integrity of peace intuitively reflect the corresponding qualities of their source - SPHERONS.
In ancient philosophy, together with the idea of peace from harmony the idea of justice pursues, unbreakable bond of which is best expressed at Plato: "reasonableness is like harmony ... it adjusts its own way absolutely everything entirely…, this harmony is reasonableness ... it is justice ... Every single person should do their own work ... and do not meddle in other people work - this is justice" [State: 431e – 433e]. Justice is a consequence of holistic harmony of the estates of Plato’s ideal peace state and also one of the inner reasons of peace for this state. In such a definition of justice, Plato through his brilliant intuition anticipates the idea of spheral employment of people, i.e. SPHERONS idea.
All my experience as a practitioner of medical science demonstrates and confirms that the first pillar of peace is the belief in God as the creator of universe and man. Other pillars of peace are: the family, state caring about education and treatment of citizens, politicians and citizens, their virtues, ideals and values, economic development of all nations, and their harmonious coexistence in love and solidarity. All they are examined in my books [22,23,24,25,26,27, 28].
So I, the indigenous Greek Orthodox, Apostolos John Paschos, Doctor of Medicine and Doctor Nuclear Medicine, physician- philosopher, physician- nutritionist, writer, historian, poet, a follower of the great Hellenic ancestors and all the virtues of peace, which I feel and believe that there is global harmony of people, which along with freedom, justice, democracy and peace can be expressed in GPS to educate it in the universities throughout the world.
I think it is necessary and urgent to help this new initiative GHA, which works with high morale since 2005, creating seven books and 50 projects of global harmony and harmonious peace, integrated into "the ABC of Harmony" by 76 co-authors . GPS appears first in the world in the GHA as a way to understand and build global peace from harmony of SPHERONS. This science, as installed in all the universities of the world, will be a true gift of God to all people on Earth for their wisdom and love for neighbor, with universal health and quality of life, because peace is the universal harmony of people in security, education, health and democracy.
The article main content is expressed by model of Tetranet harmonious thinking in the chain of concepts: 1.Harmony of Greek SPHERONS - 2.Intuition of Greek thinkers - 3.Greek ideas of peace from harmony - 4.Spiritual preconditions of GPS
Model-10. Intuition peace from harmony in ancient Greece
Dr Apostolos John Paschos
Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Nuclear Medicine, physician- philosopher, physician- nutritionist, author, historian, poet, Medicine lecturer, former Lecturer at the Aristotle University of Salonica,
Member of Global Harmony Association GHA,
Member of 18 scientific societies,
Member of the International Society of Greek Writers and Arts, member of Union of Greek Authors, Honorary member of the non-government society for the culture “Argonaftes”,
Member of International Academy “Thea Athina”, Accademia Del Fiorino, Accademia Ferdinandea,Societa Storica Catenese and The New York Academy of sciences,
Knight of Grace of Malta.
3.5. African Philosophy of Ubuntu: Beyond Egoism for Global Peace from Harmony.
This article is a continuation and development of my article: African Forms of Social Harmony in the GHA collective monograph The ABC of Harmony ... 2012, [1, 156-157].
People have been striving for peace in their respective homes, countries, regions and the world. However, their efforts have been often deemed to failure because of missing the scientific understanding of the real target. Global Peace Science (GPS) has put forward the principle “peace from harmony of SPHERONS” for its comprehension in theory, intuition and practice. It is one among a limited number of alternatives to the question of human survival in peace.
The African philosophy of Ubuntu has revealed its capacity of building and maintaining peace and harmony. In our article, we attempt to unfold a summarized understanding of the concept and its relationships with harmony and also the interface of these two concepts in prompting global peace which is a sine qua non condition to the future human survival.
Beyond self for humanness through Ubuntu. Originating from South Africa, Ubuntu was defined by Archbishop Desmond Tutu (2008)  as “the essence of being human”. No man can claim to be human by him/herself in isolation, but rather in interconnectedness with others. This is expressed by the Zulu saying “Umuntu Ngumuntu Ngabantu”, which acknowledges that “a person is a person through other persons”. Thus, humans should participate to the creation of the humanity by feeling their interdependence and respecting particularities.
Ubuntu life skills and guidelines as stated by Broodryk  comprise a range of principles as sameness, brotherhood, equality, mutuality, sympathy, tolerance, respect and lack of oppression. Moreover, Ubuntu involves people’s shared happiness, the sense of interdependent survival and the spirit of wealth sharing among the community. All in all, they contribute to shaping the ultimate value of humanness and a valued consideration of the other as an image of self.
It is worth emphasizing that Ubuntu is a culture, a philosophy and a moral. In this respect, it is regarded as patterns and values of behavior between members of the community, which prompt them to live and act as prescribed by the Ubuntu knowledge. In addition, a community with Ubuntu has established it as its fundamental belief and ethics that guide their thinking and doing. As a moral quality, Ubuntu generates positive principles that bring about a suitable lifestyle and a certain identity to people.
Ubuntu and Harmony as siblings. A tight relationship between Ubuntu and Harmony may be drawn down. Indeed, Ubuntu “favours the re-establishment of Harmony” in case of social dislocation. The room is hereby given to tolerance and empathy towards one another. Therefore, Harmony is the result of the practice of Ubuntu as concluded Broodyk [30, 27] that “the outcomes of applying Ubuntu life coping skills is propagating harmony” in the community especially when recovering from crisis.
Along the same line, Ubuntu is a cause of Harmony and the latter is a consequence as prescribed by classic conditionals ‘if you sow Ubuntu, you shall harvest Harmony’ or ‘if you want Harmony, practice Ubuntu’.The route towards harmony goes through Ubuntu, which ties the two concepts in a ‘cause-effect’ relationship on the one hand.
On the other hand, harmony may be taken as “virtue” of Ubuntu in the sense that a man of “Ubuntu personality” is characterized by his “living in harmony” with others [30, 4).This lifestyle does not limit to human beings, but it extends to the natural environment as well as the supernatural world.
Furthermore, conditions for harmony, namely “people, their diversity, unity and consent” adhere to principles of Ubuntu in the course of life. Their recognition is crucial in fighting against “disharmonious forces” like war and risk of wars, consumerism, individualism, oppression, and etc. Thus, Ubuntu and Harmony are set as the common denominator of global peace in general.
Ubuntu and Harmony for Global Peace. Global peace should be effective if the humanity were acquainted with Ubuntu. Chaplin  called upon individuals and communities to take Ubuntu as both “the right and the responsibilities for each citizen in promoting individual and societal well-being”. This is not only a matter of choice where everyone is free to “take it or leave it”, but also and especially it is a must that all people should endorse.
Tellinger  reported President Barack Obama’s speech at Nelson Mandela’s memorial where the President praised Ubuntu as “the social structure and a simple way of life for our communities [..and..] a beautiful life of abundance for all – on all levels of human endeavour”. He further commended the Ubuntu Movement as a powerful tool to “liberate all of humanity from the devastating economic enslavement” which is the worst evil of the current century. Thus, Ubuntu is the freedom that people should live for so as to enjoy peace and harmony. The statement reinforces the earlier address by another U.S. Republican President Theodore Roosevelt (1903) who highlighted “the need for an Ubuntu philosophy” as “the economic and political principles that best serve the country” for sustainable peace in the world.
In his reflection on “Ubuntu: a philosophy of the future”, Tim Miner Ounl  contrasted it with the “Individualism Western thought” while he was discussing the possible suitable way of survival for the future humanity. The conclusion was that individualism “is subordinated to the needs of the greater human community” whereas Ubuntu is “the greater good of the community”. Thus, Ubuntu is rather higher positioned to ensure the world survival than any other philosophy, and the sustainable future for Global peace is in the effectiveness of Ubuntu.
The holistic aspect of Ubuntu makes it the most suitable way towards peace. Ubuntu caters for religions, spirituality, economic world, social order, individual matters, nations and business. The aim is to alleviate all barriers and thus to foster prosperous and harmonious religions, economic systems, collaboration between nations and individuals, as well as fair business. Chaplin  qualified this holistic aspect as “Ubuntu is an African word for a universal concept”. Therefore, global peace should be thought of in a holistic way, which gives an advantage to Ubuntu as its foremost promoter. Besides, the Ubuntu holism is connected with its globalism. From African roots, Ubuntu philosophy has got “global implications” as put forward by Miner Ounl . In fact, “it ties each of us to the common good for all others in the world […] with its potential for a lasting and just peace in the world”. Thus, the movement should not be confined to Africa, while it has the potential of a worldwide significance.
Murithi  explained the global implications of Ubuntu in terms of its lessons towards global peace. Four among the lessons are namely public participation in the peacemaking process, supporting victims and suffered in making peace, acknowledging guilt and granting forgiveness, and recognizing the essential unity and interdependence of the humanity. These lessons have been promoted by Ubuntu through empathy, cooperation and sharing of the common good. In that perspective, the world needs “Ubuntu forms of governance” and “Ubuntu economies” for global Peace [35; 36; 37; 38; 39].
To recap, each society develops its home strategies and techniques for peacemaking, and communities learn from one another. Thus, the African Ubuntu should inspire Africa and the rest of the world towards Global peace.
Conclusion. Ubuntu is definitely an opportunity towards Global Peace and Harmony. It is the most powerful alternative to the current world crises as well as “a sine qua non condition for a just and sustainable world order” in all regions. It is in this framework that the Rights and Humanity Emergency Congress of February 2009 made “Ubuntu Declaration for a Just and Sustainable World Economy” (http://www.gentleaction.org/library/Ubuntu_Declaration.pdf) where they called upon leaders to take action towards the integrated world peace.
As the world has got numerous hidden opportunities to cope with too complex challenges faced by the humanity, Ubuntu may help more to discover their practicalities of implementation. It may further establish and sustain global codes of conduct to be adopted by all human beings for the survival of the humanity. Therefore, Ubuntu is both “an economic argument” and “a moral imperative” to lead the humanity from global crisis towards global opportunities for all humans. In this sense, Ubuntu might prompt changes and best practices to the benefit of not only individuals, but also and especially the humanity as a whole.
The philosophy of Ubuntu creates the fertile soil and effective way on the African continent for the recognition and dissemination of Global Peace Science (GPS), especially the ideas of its universal SPHERONS as eternal actors of global peace from harmony worldwide. GPS explains the profound ideas of peace from harmony in the philosophy of Ubuntu through its intuition of SPHERONS. However, the question of the relationship and mutual supplementation of GPS and Ubuntu requires special detailed analysis.
The article main content is expressed by the model of Tetranet harmonious thinking in the chain of concepts: 1.Harmony of African SPHERONS - 2.Harmony intuition in Ubuntu - 3.Ideas of peace and harmony in Ubuntu - 4.Spiritual preconditions of GPS in Africa
Model-11. Intuition of peace from harmony in African philosophy of Ubuntu
Mr. Heli Habyarimana
GHA Vice-President, Assistant Lecturer, Sociolinguistics, Rwandan Peace Activist, Shalom Educating for Peace-Rwanda,
Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Education of Kibungo (INATEK),
Address: Kigali, Rwanda; Email: email@example.comWebsite: http://www.peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=361
3.6. Erasmus, Gottfried Leibniz and Immanuel Kant: Founders of Global Peace Science from Harmony. Leo Semashko
The idea of peace from harmony as intuition of origin and flourishing of human peace on the basis of social harmony and consent of people has very difficult and a long world history beginning with Homer, Buddha, Confucius, Christ, etc. This idea, as intuition of past history, is the source of global peace science (GPS), which gives to start the scientific study of global history of peace from harmony for the first time in the world. Among the myriad of past intuitive ideas, conjectures, hypotheses and predictions of peace from harmony, we find three of the most profound and thorough, which, from our point of view, can be considered as a sufficient source of GPS and the authors of these conjectures can be considered as the founders of GPS. These are: Erasmus, Gottfried Leibniz and Immanuel Kant, a brief analysis of the relevant texts of which below, we believe, confirms our assumption.
Erasmus of Rotterdam or Erasmus (1466-1536), originally from the Netherlands, the greatest scientist of the Northern Renaissance, known as the "prince of humanists", published in 1517 (five centuries ago!) pamphlet entitled "The Complaint of Peace, Banished and Defeated Everywhere," briefly "The Complaint of Peace" [40, 30-65]. Defining peace as "the source of all prosperity of people," Erasmus denounces war as the main misfortune and misery of people. He writes: "I, Peace, is celebrated by all men and gods as multiplier and defender of all the best that has ever existed in heaven and on Earth .... War, on the contrary, is nasty to all things: war is the root cause of all the ills and evils, bottomless ocean absorbs all without distinction." War is "a criminal deed and ... the source of all crimes."
Erasmus recognizes harmony/consent of people as the cause of peace and superior quality of reasonable human nature: "nature has endowed mind the human only ... and the desire to agree .... Nature teaches people to harmony and peace ... but nature is so strong among the wild beasts, cannot do anything with people,.. it is not able to reconcile" them. This means that natural harmony only, by Erasmus, is not enough to peace reigned between people. Erasmus recognizes the disagreements/disharmonies as "the sources and causes of all enmities and wars" among all segments of the population, among scholars, among of different religions, among the believers of one religion, and even within the family, and each person, but especially among the rulers. Among them, the vicars of God as the "Prince of Harmony," - "I cannot find even a shadow of the true peace and harmony!" The sovereigns, whom Erasmus called tyrants, "see and feel the own power only destroying the agreement (harmony) among the people … to involve people in the war, to separate it ... to make it easier to plunder and torture of unhappy people."
The same role plays the bishops, cardinals and popes who participate in wars and encourage them. Therefore, the peacekeeping mission of Christianity has fallen. "That Christ praised peace as the best thing and decried war as the most pernicious thing, it is hardly able to reconcile the peoples and like little monarchs." Erasmus develops this idea further: "The Pope has supreme authority. But when nations and sovereigns randomly fierce fighting in the war in the course of many years, where is it, that papal authority? ... Pope calls for war - people obey. Pope calls for peace - why do people do not obey the same way? ... This shows that under the pretext of church’s ministry the popes were served their own greed, not to say about them worse."
Erasmus is looking for a tool that will protect harmony: "If you hate in your heart war I, Peace, will give you advice on how to protect consent." He sees this tool to support everything that serves the common good rather than self-interest: "Peace and harmony among the citizens can curb the evil thoughts of bad sovereign. Let neither citizens nor sovereign not think about their private benefit." Commonweal provides consent/harmony between people and prevents war. This is the great conclusion of Erasmus: the common good is consent/harmony (and vice versa), which excludes war generated by private interests. "The war has nothing to do with the public interest." However, Erasmus recognizes just wars against the barbarian invasions as a public good. He admits only unjust and criminal the wars between Christians. He appeals to reason of Christians: "Understand, what a colossal power is in harmony (consent) of set (people), opposing the tyranny of the nobles! ... The most people hate the war and pray for peace. A few, whose vile welfare depends from national grief, want war."
Almost all the deep intuitions of peace from harmony/consent and all the riches of social imagination of this peace at Erasmus are the source of GPS. But harmony at his is subjective and surface, therefore weak, depending on the arbitrariness of people and deprived of social need and objective basis. It makes peace by weak, "banished and defeated everywhere" as he himself admits. Weak harmony allows disharmony and wars from it to be strong, long-lasting and debilitating. Erasmus intuitively realized and expressed that general historical trend, which can be called a trend of “social weakening peace” and which can be represented by the following chain of concepts 1.Weak social harmony - 2.Weak social peace - 3.Strong social disharmony - 4.Strong wars. This trend is resulting in fall of the common good and the growth of social destruction and pathology. The chain of concepts of this historical trend is expressed by the following model of Tetranet harmonious thinking:
Model-12. Weakness of peace from harmony at Erasmus
Erasmus’ main merit is to establish the inseparability of, on the one hand, peace and harmony, and on the other, disharmony and war. They are practically indissoluble and identical at him that GPS accepts and develops. Erasmus therefore can be considered with sufficient ground as one of the pioneers of this science - GPS.
The attributes of social necessity and sufficiency of harmony were available to Leibniz’s intuition in his, per se axiomatic, pre-established harmony, which he gave the highest - the divine, absolute sense.
Gottfried Leibniz (1646 - 1716), German philosopher, mathematician, historian, creating theory of the predetermined/pre-established harmony (this concept was first mentioned in 1696), which was the result of his passion since the age of twelve to look for all the "unity and harmony" under the influence of Confucianism. This Leibniz’s doctrine should explain, within his philosophy of Monadology, universal inter-dependence and consistency in the world by God’s pre-established harmony, i.e. consent and conformity between mutually independent physical and spiritual substances, i.e. between monads of soul and body, or between essence and existence in the universe, in which "everything breathes by mutual consent."
This atmosphere of harmony was created by God before monads and is embedded in them as their preset nature, reflecting and incorporating "all in all" and therefore coordinated (harmonious) always and everywhere. He gave this theory crucial importance as a new proof of God's existence previously unknown. Recognizing harmony established by God before any creation, Leibniz explained that its fundamental role in all that He created. He saw no other way to understand the consistency of natural universe except through divine harmony. It defines a single world order, the unity of its diversity and common laws of its development [41, 371-373 etñ.]
The famous historian of philosophy Igor Narskiy [42, 319-321, etc.] wrote, "In the system of Leibniz, main role of God consists in the integration and harmonization of monads .... Harmonization of monads ... forces them to restrict each other." In the epistemological sense predetermined harmony means that "the results of cognition also compose a harmonious system." (This harmony demonstrates, in particular, the GPS creation, including the SPHERONS theory uniting its precursors’ ideas presented in this paragraph.)
Leibniz believed that the present world was created by God as the best (harmonious) of all possible worlds, including human society, as the essential harmony of monads defines the harmony of all their manifestations, including social. Therefore, God established harmony between people provides a lasting peace in which wars - it is only local, occasional, temporary and pathological deviations from it. So Leibniz ignores a problem of war and peace, considering it clear, solved once and forever by his pre-established harmony “in our most perfect”, i.e. very harmonious world. The fact that people still cannot live in it by fully harmoniously and without wars – it is a matter of time: the future history will correct this injustice, when people overcome their ignorance in harmony.
If Erasmus’ peace is a pathetic island in an ocean of eternal war, "banished and defeated everywhere", which cannot save even the human consent because of its subjectivity, precariousness and fragility, in the system of Leibniz’s pre-established harmony peace is as strong and eternal as this harmony installed by God absolutely. Therefore, Leibniz’s peace is the eternal ocean of divine harmony, in which the war is only temporary and miserable islands disappearing under the influence of pre-established harmony, eliminating any deviations from it.
Unlike Erasmus, Leibniz outlined intuitively the opposite historical trend, which can be called a trend of “social reinforcement” and which can be represented by the following chain of concepts: 1.Strong social harmony - 2.Strong social peace - 3.Weak social disharmony - 4.Weak wars or their absence. This trend is resulting in the growth of the common good and reducing social destruction and pathology. The chain of concepts of this historical trend is expressed by the following model of Tetranet thinking:
Model-13. Lasting peace from harmony of Gottfried Leibniz
Both opposite historical trends act simultaneously and are determined by the quality and scope of social harmony, which depends from the quality and scope of its 16 fundamental elements presented in SOCIONOME (see above). But Erasmus’ trend is full dynamics and development and Leibniz’s trend is devoid them in view of the absolute nature of pre-established harmony. The main merit of Leibniz is to find the eternal source of harmony, which he found only in God. Harmony at Leibniz, like Pythagoras and Plato, received divine sanctification that is very important for recognition of its highest social value and priority. This idea takes and develops GPS, therefore Leibniz, like Erasmus, can be considered with sufficient ground as one of the pioneers of this science - GPS.
Thus, if Erasmus found and identified a link of peace and harmony, dependence of the first from the second but cannot find eternal source of harmony/consent of people, Leibniz found it in the divine pre-established harmony of all things but cannot find its specific grounds in society, in social nature. It did Kant, who rejected the pre-established harmony of Leibniz.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), the great German philosopher, published in 1795 a brilliant treatise on "Perpetual Peace" [43, 150-192]. In this work, in the "FIRST SUPPLEMENT.
OF THE GUARANTEE FOR PERPETUAL PEACE" to the "Third Definitive Article of Perpetual Peace," he made the greatest discovery of the "harmony among men" as social nature and the guarantee of eternal peace ("The guarantee of perpetual peace is nature"). This nature "establishes harmony between morality and politics by transcendental concept of public right," on which Kant builds the harmonious agreement of "perpetual peace among nations." Just right, uniting in consent/harmony the goals of all individuals and groups in society is an adequate way of expressing eternal social nature of humans, and therefore the only tool to achieve eternal peace, "which is not just a chimerical one." But the right is able to achieve this goal only through eternal harmonious social nature of people, their abilities and employment. He writes: "nature guarantees perpetual peace by the mechanism of human passions." This means that by nature a man is peaceful and harmonious, so eternal peace is only a matter of time. A more detailed and comprehensive analysis of Kant's philosophy of peace is represented in a remarkable and innovative article of Eugene Ivakhnenko .
Recognition of harmonious social nature is the main merit of Kant. He found the source of peace in harmony not only God but also in human nature itself, in the active productive employment of people, which can only be a harmonious and peaceful, i.e. of peaceful from harmony. This idea is fully perceived and developed in GPS. Therefore, Kant, like Leibniz and Erasmus, we can assume, with sufficient reason, one of the founders of this science - GPS.
Kant, like Leibniz, is a supporter of the strong historical tendency but unlike him he sees the force of this trend not only in God but in the production nature of society. GPS develops precisely this tendency in its central theory of SPHERONS with which we, in the words of Kant, associate "revolution in the way of human thinking," i.e., necessity of revolution of very straggled social thinking in general and especially the sources of eternal peace.
We do not touch here with two important aspects of Kant’s theory of perpetual peace: 1. Legal, which studied in detail in many other works [45; 46; 47; 48] and 2. Philosophical contradiction with the contractual theory of society, in which the so-called "natural condition of people" is understood as "war of all against all" (Hobbes), i.e. as congenital in nature the hostility of people to each other. The second point, in our view, is a new antinomy Kant, who recognized Hobbes’ theory and simultaneously asserted the possibility and inevitability of perpetual peace as a result of a harmonious human nature. The eternal peace is impossible if human nature is military, and if it is possible and even more inevitable as in Kant, the human nature is peace, not military.
This antinomy may be defined so: human nature is harmonious/peace-loving and at the same time is aggressive/warlike, shortly: peace/war nature. In this antinomy both theses can be proved equally well, if limited historical experience, which gives the myriads of examples how peace so and military aggression. Unfortunately, Kant did not formulate this antinomy; therefore, an opposite of these theses remained as logical contradiction in his philosophy of peace. This antinomy will be discussed in the next paragraph.
The conclusions from the analysis and comparison of peace doctrines of three philosophers as founders of GPS are.
1. All they recognized harmony as source and foundation of peace. It is their identity and a cause of their recognition as the GPS founders and their different and contradictory in understanding of harmony is philosophical impetus for development of GPS.
2. Erasmus unfolded the dependence of peace from harmony but found no objective basis for harmony.
3. Leibniz found this basis in the divine pre-established harmony but did not find it in society.
4. Kant defined the foundation of social harmony in active employment of people but did not find its social structure and limited the achievement of perpetual peace only right.
5. All three approaches to understanding peace from harmony epistemologically based on intuition of SPHERONS as the eternal social structure of harmony serving a source of peace but on its different sides and manifestations.
6. All three approaches are the necessary intuitive steps of approximation to scientific knowledge of social harmony of SPHERONS as an eternal structural basis and source of global peace in society.
7. SPHERONS in their structural quality as harmonious creators of necessary social resources are the common denominator of these approaches.
The creation of SPHERONS’ theory in GPS through more than 200 years after Kant and almost 500 years after Erasmus, that expresses its complexity and difficulty for knowledge, marks the transition of past intuitive guesses and assumptions about peace from harmony on a truly scientific level. It integrates the logical theory (the first chapter), statistical empirical evidence (chapter two) and the historical evolution of SPHERONS idea as a synthesis of positive intuitions of past approaches. SPHERONS express indissolubility of peace and harmony as at Erasmus; they are eternal as at Leibniz; they are social as at Kant and they acquire the structure and consciousness through GPS.
Only conscious SPHERONS provide a strong historical tendency of global peace in its entirety. Therefore, in harmonious unity with the theory of SPHERONS, Erasmus, Gottfried Leibniz and Immanuel Kant are the GPS founders and their ideas acquire a new historical meaning in the new spiritual dimension, composing elements of modern scientific revolution of straggler social cognition.
The main content of this article is summarizing in model of harmonious Tetranet thinking by chain of concepts expressing attributive transformation of harmony at the GPS founders: 1.Erasmus: subjective harmony - 2.Leibniz: pre-established harmony - 3.Kant: harmony of social nature - 4.GPS: eternal harmony of SPHERONS
Model-14. Attributive transformation of harmony at GPS founders
In this dynamics of harmony attributes, SPHERONS of GPS take its logical place, integrating its quality at the predecessors and opening perspectives of the new qualities and institutions of social harmony necessary for conscious SPHERONS and their scientific construction of global peace. In their philosophical knowledge a key role play different intuition of SPHERONS’ social harmony among different nations at different times. As wrote the famous explorer of Leibniz's philosophy and antiquity Gennady Mayorov, "idea is the intuition of being" creative inspiration, knowledge start and incentive of thinking, the result of which is the concept" [49, 110-117]. Jurgen Habermas, in the ethical analysis of Kant's idea of peace, also recognizes its intuition but value character . As intuition of Democritus’ atoms passed history of almost 2500 years to the scientific concept of atom, also intuition of SPHERONS, since Numa Pompilius, passed in the history of almost 2,700 years up to their scientific concept in GPS. Awareness of intuition and concept of SPHERONS was only possible within their scientific theory of harmony in the ABC [1, 25-65], developed in the early chapters of GPS.
Leo Semashko, PhD, GHA President, St-Petersburg, Russia,
Web: www.peacefromharmony.org,E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3.7. What is the Human Nature: War or Peace? SPHERONS: Logic of Peace Nature.
The dilemma of military/peaceful nature of human is the eternal question of philosophy and knowledge in general. Its range was defined by Plato, when he placed the human between God, who knows all things, and animals that are unable to comprehend the world. The human nature is to know the unknown, it is homo sapience. However, it is purely epistemological definition, which does not answer the question of social nature of human directly, though connected with it. If we do not know the human nature, we do not know to what is intended his reason: for war to kill their own kind, or for peace to continue the life of persons and society?
The most common response to the question of human nature became a Social contract theory of Thomas Hobbes, who defined this nature as military. Thomas Hobbes (1588 - 1679), the celebrated British philosopher, known for Social contract theory as a theory of the state in which the doctrine of man is its introduction into the main work of Hobbes' Leviathan. His ideas about human nature got the most widely recognized and adopted so far, although many followers corrected it and opponents criticized it. He writes: "we find in human nature are three main causes of the war: first, competition; secondly, mistrust; third, the thirst for glory ... It is obvious that as long as men live without a common power, holding them all in fear, they are in that condition which is called war, and it is in a state of war of all against all (bellum omnium contra omnes) ..., when everyone is an enemy of each ... In this state there is no place for labor love, .. there is no agriculture, shipping, maritime trade, ... no knowledge of the earth's surface, calculating time, crafts, literature, no society, and, worst of all, there is a perpetual fear and constant danger of violent death, and human life is lonely, poor, hopeless, dumb and short-lived "[51, 333].
Thus, human is naturally hostile to the other person and he is more cruel beast than wolves, bears and snakes. Therefore, "Man is a wolf" (homo homini lupus est) and he uncontrollably tends not to peace with other people and to the power and property. All this at Hobbes characterizes most clearly "natural state" of people.
Professor Igor Narskiy wonders the legitimate question: "when and where was indeed observed in the Earth the natural state? Hobbes does not "tie" it to the specific conditions of primitive life and do not correlate with any real historical chronology .."[52, 167]. Consequently, Hobbes’ proposed model of human nature and its natural state has no scientific sense, as devoid any empirical grounds. Similarly, we can arbitrarily ascribe to human nature any qualities. The only reason explaining these fictions of Hobbes can only be temporary and local facts of "revolutionary events in England in the mid XVII century, when the clashes of selfish property relations culminated... (together) with ruthless pauperization of peasants" [ibid.]
Contrary to scientific insolvency of Hobbes' teaching about military nature of a human and its natural state as a "war of all against all" or "each with other", it has a lot of supporters, even among thinkers. We have already emphasized that among them was Kant, who in confirmation of Hobbes' understanding of human nature emphasized: "From such a curve plank as that, from which a human is made, you cannot do anything direct," having in mind "the inevitable antagonism" and life "through wars" in human society [53, 14-15]. The life of this false and fantastic doctrine up to now can only be explained by one thing: it is advantageous militarists and arms manufacturers of all time and nations, so they defended and will defend it contrary to the facts, science and logic.
But science must show, on the one hand, the falsity of doctrines of military nature of human (primarily at Hobbes), and on the other, to oppose them the scientific theory of the peaceful nature of human.
The falsity of Hobbes’ doctrine of human nature is as follows:
1.In this notion of Hobbes are mixed two concepts: animal and social nature of human.
2. When Hobbes speaks about human as a more brutal beast than wolves, bears and snakes, he has a view the animal nature, appreciating its erroneously and at humans and at animals. This well had noticed still Erasmus: "Consent (harmony – L.S.) exists and among the most ferocious and wild beasts. Lion never shows vampirism to their fellows. Boar do not rips smashing tusk other boar. Among lynxes peace reigns .... A consensus among wolves even become proverbial .... only people - and they need the most unanimity - unable to reconcile any kind and powerful nature, no education, no clear benefit from mutual consent"[54, 41]. The animals are unable to kill their own kind and the people - are able, but not by any innate nature and by ignorance in harmony/consent and inability to organize their lives in it.
3. on social nature, a human is public being, capable only live together with others humans that already was well understood by Aristotle over two thousand years before Hobbes. Therefore, human cannot live "lonely" and kill each other, according to Hobbes. This is absurd. A man can only live in society that is only together with other people in peace and cooperating with them, rather than killing them. Outside of society and without people a man cannot exist. Therefore, the reason is given to man for peace and not for war. However, in some, militaristic conditions, such as the USA, where everyone is allowed to have guns, society is moving in the direction of the war of all against all.
4. The social nature and condition, by definition, are impossible without labor love, production, knowledge, and society. But Hobbes admits their absence for a man with complete seriousness, though this is the chimerical and unnatural condition appropriated to the frogs and other animals but not the man as a social being.
Therefore, all of Hobbes’ "proofs" of military nature and natural state of man has nothing to do with science. They are only good for the warlords that similar "arguments" justify their military aggressions, such as Mussolini, who said “man is nasty animal”; or as the Prussian King Frederick II, who claimed that war is inevitable, as “the men are the most vicious creature in the world and always will kill their own kind”, etc.
The social nature of man can be determined by science only within holistic system of universal and permanent elements of society represented in SOCIONOME whose center are SPHERONS (see the first chapter above and the ABC of Harmony) . The history knows a myriad of facts as the lowest as and most sublime of human behavior. What is the nature of man? It cannot be deduced from this set of facts. Of them can prove both military and peace nature of man as another antinomy of knowledge. It is needs the logical proof of human nature, which is sole by Leibniz, which guarantees objectivity and truth of knowledge.
Such proof gives the theory of SPHERONS substantiating from harmony the peaceful nature of human. It is logically deployed in detail in the first chapter and confirmed statistically in the second chapter. Briefly recall its essence. The human nature is harmonious and peaceful thanks to a joint, all people, the SPHERONS production of spheral PIOT resources needed every society in history. Every adult is involved in all areas to the extent possible, and belongs to all SPHERONS, passing from one to another as needed. Therefore, the murder of each partner of co-production by everyone is no possible! This would stop the production and would kill society. Therefore, the joint production of all the necessary resources is harmonious and peaceful. Harmonious nature of SPHERONS and every man in his essence, expressed by psychological genome PSYNOME, similar to SOCIONOME, define peaceful social nature of man [1, 36-45].It is a logical conclusion of GPS and at the same time its basis for the subsequent conclusions.
Social contract as a common good can be understood and is based only on the joint production of the necessary resources PIOT by relevant SPHERONS in peace from their harmony. SPHERONS establish the State and Law (see below). This is a fundamentally new explanation for the origin of a new civil society, all previous history of which a deep intuition of social peace from harmony of SPHERONS accompanied in many different ways. Analysis of its evolution within epistemological perspective of GPS is a task of the new, global history of peace from harmony.
The considered logic of peace human nature can be represented in a model of Tetranet harmonious thinking by the chain of concepts: 1.Joint production of PIOT resources - 2.SPHERONS harmony in PIOT production - 3.Harmony of human nature: PSYNOME – 4. Peace human nature.
Model-15. Logic of social peace nature of human from harmony
The military nature of man is excluded by social peace nature of society, its SPFERONS and human. The existence of war is not due to their nature and superficial, temporary and local historical (transient) causes of social disharmony, which were considered in the first chapter in general and will be analyzed in more detail below.
This paragraph is summarized in the following theses of the logic of peace animal and social nature of human.
1.The nature of animals is peaceful, as if it was a military, i.e. would be to murder their own kind, all kinds of animals long would destroy themselves for hundreds of millions of years of evolution.
2.The nature of primates, including humans, is also peaceful, as if it was a military, the primates long would destroy themselves for tens of millions of years of evolution. The assumption of the "natural state of war of all against all" means, ultimately, the victory of only being in a result of murder of all others, and death of this victor in solitude of the impossibility of procreation, safety from other animals and obtaining the necessary resources.
3.The nature of human, a reasonable being (homo sapiens) is also peaceful, as if it was a military, the human long would destroy themselves for tens of thousands of years of evolution.
4.Any logical assumption about existence of primates with a military nature is recognition of their kinds become extinct and disappeared from the evolution of animal kingdom as a result of military self-destruct in "natural state of war of all against all (each with each)" without any traces in the evolutionary history due to the high speed of self-destruction.
The theses of this logic can be represented, for clarity, in the following table.
Table. Peaceful and Military Nature
Its nature: peaceful or military
Animals: one of biological kingdoms, along with the kingdom Plantae
Survival and development during hundreds (over 600) million years
Survival and development during tens (over 50) million years
Survival and development during tens million years
People (lat. Homo) is the genus of hominids
Survival and development during about 2,5 million years
(Latin: "wise man") is the
Survival and development during about 40 thousand years
of its kind and full extinction without traces in evolutionary history because of the high speed of self-destruction. It is logically admitted the existence of primates with military nature, which disappeared from animal kingdom evolution without the traces as a result of rapid military self-destruction.
As we can see from this table, the logic of evolutionary history of animals, including human, leaves no room for a military nature and its "natural state of war of all against all (each with each)" in any of the historical choices. "The military nature" is pure fiction and myth of abstract thinking, which transforms the private (temporary and local) wars in the rank of the eternal, universal and unchanging "human nature." In reality, the nature of animal kingdom, along with the human race is peaceful, as demonstrated by time, i.e. the whole history of animal evolution. This is the most powerful and persuasive fact of peace human nature, which is devoid an abstract hypothesis "military nature of human."
The historical proof of peaceful nature of human and society requires logical argumentation and theoretical explanation. It was first presented in tetrad paradigm of global peace from universal social harmony of SPHERONS in Global Peace Science in this book.
To eliminate the epistemological source of the ideas about "military nature of human" and its "natural state of war of all against all", people should learn to live in peace from harmony that requires not only intuition but also science of peace. Just so people can live in peace without killing each other to continue the human race and do not expose it to risks of self-destruction through growth of weapons and violence. Other way to survive, except peace, at human, like all animals, does not exist. Mankind makes this whole history but intuitively, leaving ample field for wars on the scale of its ignorance in social harmony. We can assume that humanity possesses on 70-80% intuitive global peace from harmony and by 20-30% (on the maximum number of population, which participated in the biggest World Wars) its space remains open for wars of ignorance in harmony. This social space of war will decrease on the measure of growth of GPS education and the corresponding, peaceful consciousness from harmony. Of course, we must understand that at the modern weapons for self-destruction of humanity is enough space of war and in 30, and 20 and 10 and one percent. While this space is not to be reduced to zero, until mankind will stand on the brink of self-destruction. Freedom from its danger will be achieved with the full disarmament.
God gave people an intuitive way to live in peace, above all in the family, so as not to interrupt the human race, and not to condemn it to extinction. But in large masses of people in large-scale societies, besides intuition requires scientific knowledge, consciousness and will to live together in peace from harmony. This knowledge, consciousness and will give GPS and global education in it since childhood. only in this case, the peaceful nature of human will reach the fullness of reasonable historical development. Scientific consciousness of peace from harmony in GPS will supplement intuitive peaceful human nature, which is expressed in religion, art, family, and other basis social institutions up to necessary completeness, excluding any space war in society. But with the current level of public consciousness and traditional social thinking, ignorant in scientific, objective, harmony, eliminate the space of war from society is not possible. GPS opens this possibility really, scientifically convincing humanity in its ineradicable peaceful nature and debunking all the myths about its military nature as false and inhuman.
Leo Semashko, PhD, GHA President, St-Petersburg, Russia,
Web: www.peacefromharmony.org,E-mail: email@example.com
3.8. Classic Peace Ideas in GPS and their GHA Interpretation
Francisco Goya: The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters.
GHA comment: The Sleep of Peace Reason Produced War Monsters of the 20th and 21st Centuries. only Global Peace Science will awake this reason. But this science does not yet exist. We must create this science that military monsters of military science would not engulf humanity in the sleep of peace reason.
Immanuel Kant: Natural harmony among men is the guarantee of perpetual peace, which is not just a chimerical one.
GHA comment: Kant, in the spirit of his antinomic thinking, held antinomic definition of human nature: the military posed by Hobbes, and harmonious. His philosophy of harmonious social nature of people is the original theoretical foundation and source for the Global Peace Science. Therefore Kant is the ancestor of this science as a science of social harmony, which was most fully developed in the GHA peacemaking books and projects since 2005.
Social harmony provides the best, most just, most free and most equal opportunities and rights for the development of every person, every part of society/humanity and it as a whole. Therefore harmony excludes wars between the parts and is a natural and therefore the ultimate guarantor and source of peace. Hence, peace comes from harmony.
Mahatma Gandhi: If we are ever to have real peace in this world, we shall have to begin with the children.
GHA comment: If we are ever to have real peace in this world we shall have to begin with the children, with the ABC of Harmony as peace science, and with their harmonious peace education.
Nelson Mandela: Education is the most powerful weapon, which you can use to change the World.
GHA comment: Education will always be the most powerful weapon to change the world, when it will become a planetary harmonious education in Global Peace Science.
Albert Einstein: Peace cannot be kept by force. It can only be achieved by understanding.
GHA comment: Hence, peace can be achieved and built only by reason, armed with global peace science and embodied in global consciousness through global education in it.
We should overcome the challenge of scientific disarmament and ignorance of peace reason in the face of the powerful and excellent armament of militaristic reason by highly developed for two centuries military science, to which today are served millions of military experts, scholars, teachers and students in thousands of military headquarters staff, academies and colleges of the world.
Charles, Prince of Wales: Harmony is a revolution in our outlook and thinking.
GHA comment: GHA has been developing a harmonious outlook and thinking since 2005, but only now we have come to understand its revolutionary character in Global Peace Science. This science is an intellectual revolution of peace thinking (worldview, theory, philosophy, consciousness) of humanity of the 21st century. Such a scientific revolution of peace thinking is the response to the actual collapse of traditional peace thinking, which has been expressed in the 20th century to the present day in its complete impotence before two world wars, before daily local wars, before galloping military expenditures and the arms race for the third world war, before rising terror and individual murders, etc. This revolution will allow creating Global Peace Science that cannot be created in traditional peace thinking in spite of all its merits.
The revolution of peacemaking thinking from harmony, initiated by Charles, Prince of Wales in his book Harmony, 2010, is a source of inspiration and enthusiasm of GHA and all peacemakers of the world, awaking peace reason through imagination of harmony in Global Peace Science.
Leo Tolstoy: In the hands of war are billions of money, millions of obedient troops and in our hands is only one, but the mightiest tool in the world - the truth.
GHA comment: Of all the arsenals of humanity: culture, science, art, medicine, education, economy, politics, etc., the most powerful and fastest growing today is the war arsenal, consolidated by military science, which are nursing all governments around the world with rabid military budgets, which now absorbs almost all the economic growth of humanity.
The peace arsenal is infinitely weak in comparison with it, first of all, because it is deprived of scientific expression of the peace truth as its mightiest tool. This truth is clearly expressed by Global Peace Science.
Martin L. King Jr.: We must shift the arms race into a peace race.
GHA comment: Global Peace Science reveals the truth that the main source of economic growth of humanity in the 21st century is global peace, not the exploitation of natural resources in military interests. When the governments of the world understand this truth in terms of economic stimulus, then they will come to a peace race, i.e. to emulation of the earliest transformations of military arsenals and military forces to the Peace Corps using military resources and expenses for the purposes of peaceful construction of roads, airports, housing, hospitals, educational institutions, sports facilities, etc. A peace race will overcome hunger, unemployment and other social pathologies and global problems. A peace race as such supersedes the economic and financial crises, resulting from the arms race and excessive military spending. A peace race based on Global Peace Science will ensure sustainable development of humanity, which is constantly being undermined by the arms race.
Martin L. King Jr.: Peace is not merely a distant goal that we seek, but a means by which we arrive at that goal.
GHA comment: To the militarist, having a false definition of peace (“if you want peace – prepare to war”), peace becomes a slave, a condition, a break between wars and preparations for war, Global Peace Science advocates true definition of peace: “If you want peace - create harmony on the basis of its science.” Peace can be reached only by peaceful path of global peace consciousness through global peace education in this science, and not a global preparation to war in an endless arms race.
Militaristic definition and thinking of peace is limited the military means to achieve peace, which provides, at best, a temporary reconciliation, maintaining an endless war path. We see this throughout history, up to the present day. World leaders and governments are competent in military ways of achieving peace but they are ignorant in peaceful/harmonious means to achieve it.
Nicholas Roerich: Peace culture must be in priority, not war culture.
GHA comment: only Global Peace Science reveals all the diversity of peace benefits before the war and provides insight into the true culture of peace. The lack of this science in human culture is its biggest flaw so far. This science is the foundation for the Harmonious Culture of Peace, which is opposed to the militaristic culture of peace, absorbing and retaining its private positive moments.
The wise sage Confucius said,
"When there is beauty in the character,
There is harmony in the home"
The enlightened one, the Buddha added,
"When there is harmony in the home,
There is order in the nation,
When there is order in the nation
There is peace in the world"
GHA comment: Confucius and Buddha expressed the architecture of global peace and its main levels: individual - family - nation – humanity/world/Earth. Confucius and Buddha identified the root source of global peace - harmony of the human as a genus. But only through 2.5 thousand years of military history after Confucius and Buddha humanity has come to Science, which allows us to understand the architecture and source of global peace from harmony - not only geniuses but also to everyone. only this Science provides global peace consciousness and global peace from conscious harmony. only this Science will allow consciously establishing harmony in character and family. only this Science will allow mankind to consciously build a harmonious order in the nations and a harmonious global peace in the world on our Earth.
Despite the wise and undoubtedly true words of Confucius, Buddha, and other humanity’s geniuses, the global peace has no appeared on the Earth over more than 2,500 years of endless war on it. It will come to the Earth only when Global Peace Science will be created as a property of all nations and every person on Earth. Therefore, this Science is the first common good of humanity and for each person in the 21st century.
Global Harmony Association, inspired by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, President of India, 2002-2007, the great contemporary scientist and poet in harmony, the ABC of Harmony coauthor, the GHA Honorary Member since 2005 and the GHA World Harmony Creator since 2011, realized the need for this Science and created the first book on this topic in world history in the ABC of Harmony for World Peace … (2012) and in this book.
Ernesto Kahan: Ah, if men could understand that giving love they will achieve much more than giving hate!
GHA comment: Men can understand it through Global Peace Science, which unfolds the deep mystery of love as peace from harmony in all its bloom and dignity, eliminating hate as own defiling humiliation.
Others GHA comments: GHA creates Global Peace Science on the shoulders of world giants of human thought.
Global Peace Science is the consolidation of peace consciousness of humanity in contrast to military science, which is the consolidation of hostile consciousness in humanity.
If harmony is the ultimate guarantor and natural source of peace, Global Peace Science is the Science of Social Harmony, founded by Kant and which most fully represented in the ABC of Harmony for Global Peace (2012).
The famous American philosopher, the ABC coauthor, Glenn Martin, praised it as "our new Planetary paradigm, the fundamental revolution in science and paradigm shift in human consciousness" (p. 296).
GHA does not know other variants of Global Peace Science and other theoretical approaches to its creation but logically GHA supposes them opportunity and is ready both to compete with them in any international scientific contest for peace science, and to cooperation with them to complement each other in a mutual harmonious enriching.
GHA understands that all powerful militaristic host will hamper to the progress of Global Peace Science, so this task will not be easy and fast one.
3.9. Mir (Peace). Prayer for Peace and Culture. Nicholas Roerich
It is no coincidence that the Russian word mir means both "Universe" and "peacefulness" at the same time. It is for a reason that these two great concepts are united by one sounding. When you bethink of Universe you imagine peaceful labour. Having set about work you will be conscious of the Universe.
Peace is particularly talked about in the fear of threat of war. But war can be of different kinds - inward and outward, visible and invisible. And it's an open question which one is more dreadful...
"It is a true misery of both ancient and present mankind that its most prominent poet and wisest teacher Homer was a bard of war, not peace. He had lost his faith in peace together with faith in gods.
‘There can be no covenants between men and lions, wolves and lambs can never be of one mind, but hate each other out and out an through. Therefore there can be no understanding between you and me, nor there any covenants between us, till one or other shall fall and glut grim Mars with his life's blood.’
That is what "everyone will be killing each other" and "there will be no end to war" mean. "Iliad", the Trojan war mark just the beginning of endless war - the war which has been lasting till today throughout centuries of the world history", - Merezhkovsky exclaims in his "Atlantida".
There are lots of heartrending moanings. Dante had also designated scorching spots for assassins and vituperators. If we examine all symbols and scrolls, in all metaphors and hieroglyphs we will see the same aspiration, an intimate and heartful prayer for peace […….].
The Truth is "thou shalt not kill". The first step appropriate for everyone everywhere is no murder - no war. "Kill and you will die, give life and you will be alive yourself. It is clear to a baby, being the greatest mystery at the same time".
Is defense of culture needed? Everywhere and everytime it is. Should we help cultural workers who are oppressed and burdened? Everywhere and everytime we should. Should we unite around the sign of culture to overcome all the efforts to disseminate disintegration? Everywhere and everytime we should.
Or maybe culture, knowledge and beauty already been protected and affirmed enough? Maybe the principles of culture already been established everywhere? Or do cultural workers have law and people's sense as their stronghold? The League of Culture as a voice of public opinion is still emergently necessary!
We have to talk about peace and non killing. Why do we still have to? Hadn't the past millennia taught people the basic things which had been given as a commandment through all scriptures? But what do we see? The far it goes the more urgent is to claim the essence of peace. Where is the evolution when the menacing gun is combat-ready and deadly poison is being madly disseminated? To what extent people became sophisticated that poison is pouring down from the sky! From that very sky which used to give people vivifying prana.
What on earth is this? There are bombs and mines under the ground. Poison comes down from the sky. Muzzles of dreadful guns are on the alert. Here it comes the "celebration of gun" when its shot makes journey around the earth and reach anything which it can destroy.
"Nations have no idea which horrifying danger they are going to face in case of a new war", - Prof. André Meyer wrote in his report for League of Nations.
"Gases of the past war were just a toy, a children's play in front of what we will have in case of new war", - adds another expert Columbia university Professor V. Cannon.
According to the recent report of Dr. Hilton Jones made in New York the brand new gas can destroy the whole army just as easy as "quench a candle".
Truth! The inventor of poisonous gas thinks he is doing right thing. The steel worker is proud of his gun which would slay somebody beyond the horizon. The knife grinder is foretasting how the blade stubs skin and flesh... Human thoughts!
Not this kind of truth is needed. "People need another truth", - Gorky says. The truth which could boost the creative energy. Needed is the truth which awakens people's trust in their own will, sense and kind deeds.
Others make bulletproof armours. Do they hope to create a defense against all malicious attacks? May it be so.
Defense of culture, defense of motherland, defense of dignity do not suppose thoughts of violent invasion. Armour of defense is not poison of destruction. Justified is defense, condemned is invasion.
Isn't that amazing that in Russian both "peacefulness" and "Universe" are expressed by the same word "Mir"? It is not due to poorness of the language. The language is rich. But these two concepts are univalent in their essence. Universe and peaceful creation are indivisible. By all their symbols and hieroglyphs were the ancient people trying to make this beneficial and salvational tie clear.
Mir is the Universe and Mir is the global peaceful labour. Planting is creation; beauty of peace is the victress.
Prayer for Peace and Culture.
Culture and Peace are the most sacred goal of humanity! In the days of great unrest, both material and spiritual, the disturbed spirit yearns for these radiant strongholds. But our union in the name of these regenerating conceptions should not be an abstract one. In accordance with our abilities, each one in his own field, should infuse them into the actual surrounding life, as most necessary and undeferrable.
In our Peace Pact, in 1929, we proposed a special Banner of Peace for the protection of all cultural treasures. A special Committee for promoting this Banner has been elected in New York. An International Union for the Roerich Pact has been established with its central seat in Bruges, where a world Congress for spreading the ideals of Peace through Culture was convened last September with most significant results, indicating how close this aim is to the hearts of all affirmative people of the entire world.
From Temples, shrines of spirit, from all light-imparting centers, should ceaselessly thunder the world-wide call, eliminating the very possibilities of wars, and creating, for the generations to come, new lofty traditions of veneration for the true cultural treasures. By untiringly unfurling everywhere the Banner of Peace, we thus destroy the very physical field of war. Let us also affirm the World-Day of Culture, when simultaneously in all churches, all schools and all educational institutions, the world will be reminded of the true treasures of humanity, of creative heroic enthusiasm, of improvement and enhancement of life. For this purpose, we have not only to safeguard our cultural heritage in which are expressed the highest achievements of humanity, with all available means, but we must consciously value these treasures, remembering that each contact with them in itself will ennoble the human spirit.
As we have already witnessed, wars cannot be stopped by interdiction, any more than malice or falsehood can be prohibited. But by striving undelay ably and patiently to the highest treasures of humanity, we may make these products of darkness altogether inadmissible, as the progeny of crass ignorance. The ennobled, expanded consciousness having contacted the Realm of Light, will naturally enter the path of peaceful constructiveness, discarding as shameful refuse all the disparagement of human dignity generated by ignorance.
Already the lists of endorsers of the Banner of Peace are long and glorious. Already the Banner has been consecrated during the conference in Bruges in the Basilica of the Holy Blood. Thereby we have given our sacred oath to introduce it everywhere with all possible measures. Those from all ends of the world who trusted us and have suffused the space with their heartiest wishes, will not look in vain for the Banner above all shrines of real treasures. Each day brings new letters, new response. The election urn has been filled with precious votes “For Peace.” Verily Peace and Culture are at present urgently needed.
It is not so much a new law that is needed, but an imperative wish, a united panhuman desire to safeguard the achievements of mankind, which is so badly needed. Every endeavor, even the most evident, requires an active start. For Peace and Culture one does not even need a unanimous world-wide vote. The beautiful principles of General Good can be affirmed in every scale, still retaining their vital potentiality. Let us thus greet wholeheartedly all co-workers: “Without delay, proceed victoriously in your full capacities, along this glorious Path!”
Verily, the time is short—lose neither the day nor the hour! Kindle the flame of the heart to an indomitable enthusiasm. Under the Banner of Peace let us proceed towards the one Supreme Light, in powerful union as the World League of Culture! 
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